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^"^ .: 

■• ■■- '.-'^ \ ■■• 





■ -\ 

ft ■ 


iir/,.\ Ai-i[' "I'Ai.KH \\ux:s 


OF / 





1799, ISOO, 1801^ 1802, AND 1803. 

Written hy Himself in the Persian Language. 





' . . • • • 


Printed by R, Watts, Broxbourne, Herts : 









L FEAR I shall he accused of presumption in dedi" 
eating to your Ladyship a Work which may, at 
first sight, appear to he possessed of liith literary 
value. It is t,o le'dqmiAered,\koweviSK, that the 
original is theprodiictum of a ilative of the East, 
unacquainted with ' the! scie^icei of Europe, whose 
only olject was to ififorrxi ajidimpcove his coun^ 
trymen, by a candid and simple narrative of what 
he saw, heard, and thought, during his Travels. 

The remarks of such an observer, on the laws, 
manners, and customs of the different countries 
of Europe, particularly on those of our own, can 
never be without their interest and importance to 


an enlightened mind: and I am therefore en-^ 
couraged to hope, thai your Ladyship, after 
making due allowance for the disadvantages of a 
translation, may le induced to honour them unth 
your countenance and protection. 

I have the honour to le, 

Your Ladyship's most ohedient 
and devoted Servant, 

• . . 

: *• / • CijARLBs Stewart. 

• • •»• - • 

• • •• • • 

• ••• 

• • •• 

. •• • • • • . 

. •. . ^ : •• : ; 
• • • . : • 



X WILL not trespass on the time of the 
Reader, by any apology for introducing to 
him the following Work. The free re- 
marks of an intelligent Foreigner, and 
especially of an Asiatic, on our laws, cus- 
toms, and manners, when they are ascer- 


tained to be genuine, hni^t. always be con- 
sidered as an object of lii)eral curiosity. 

t * 

The Author '-of these 'Triavels was so 
well known in London, in the years 1800 
and 1801, under the title of The Persian 
Prince, and has so clearly related the prin- 
cipal incidents of his life in the introduc- 
tion and course of his narrative, that it is 
unnecessary to enter further into his per- 

viii translator's preface. 

sonal history in this place; and it only 
remains for me to give some account of the 
Manuscript from which the Translation 
was made. 

For several months after the Author's 
return to Bengal, he was without any 
employment ; during which time he re- 
vised his Notes, and compiled his Nar- 
rative. He then employed several Katibs 

(writers) fo transcribe a certain number of 
. • * . • • 

copies under Kls owi> inspection, which 
he distributed 4;<*3]i§ Irfost intimate friends. 
One of these cia/r-ecf wpips .was presented 
by the Author to Captain Joseph Taylor, 
of the Bengal Artillery, who, in the year 
I8O6, had a correct transcript taken of 
it at Allahabad, by Mirza Mohammed 
Sadik Moonshy; which copy he gave to 
Lieutenant-Colonel Lennon, who brought 


it to England in the following year^ and 
from whom it came into my hands. 

The Manuscript consists of three small 
octavo volumes, written in a neat hand; 
which, for the satisfaction of any persons 
who may have doubts of its authenticityi 
V^ill be deposited with Messrs. Longman 
& Co. Booksellers, for three months. 

With respect to the Translation, I 
shall only say,., that I have endeavoured to 
render it as literal as the different idioms 
of the two langus^ges. would iadmit: and^^ 
except in a very 'few* instances, for which 
I trust I shall be pardoned by the Reader^ 
I have not ventured to curtail or omit 
any part of the narrative. 

In some places, I have been under the 


necessity of transposing the Chapters, iit 
order to pres^erve a connexion between 
the subjects; an object little attended to 
\)y Oriental writers in generaL 

> We have several books of ficjiittcH^ 
travels, ascribed to natives of the Eaflti 
\)iut I believe this is the first time tha 
genujj^ie opinions of an Asiatic, resp^ctiiig 
the institutions of Europe, have appeared 
Si the English language ; and, as wch, I 
(itist they jpviU:^tJe*refceivi6d with profM^-; 
tkxaAe intererf^by th^. Public/ 

• ••• 

• • •• 

« vJ • • • • 

I take this * op^poft^q'ity of returning 
isy public thanks to Mr. Northcpte, for 
the readiness with which he lent th( 
Portrait whence the Engraving of the 
Author has been taken. 

Hertford, May 1810. 



IdoMS persons having entertained doubts 
of the authenticity of these Travels, the 
Translator has been induced to give in 
this Edition the names al full length, 
instead of the initials only ; and has made 
such other additions as he trusts- will com- 
pletely satisfy the most incredulous reader. 

He has also the satisfaction to state, 
that the Bengal Government, convinced of 
the policy of disseminating such a work 
among the Natives of the British Domi- 
nions in the East, ordered the Original 
in the Persian language to be printed. 
Forty Copies of the Book have arrived in 


England; and it may be seen either in the 
East-India Company's Library in London^ 
or at their College in Hertfordshire. 

The Translator still sensible of his in- 
ability to do justice to the Poetical part o^ 
l^e Woj^, has omitted it also in this Edi-: 
tioa^. The printed Copy has enabled him 
to rectify a few trifling mistakes of the 
Original Manuscript, 






• . OF 


ii :" ... 

3|tt tfK jRtttK of 4t ^QjNNWttlfiil 4i0tU 


jlfier Tkcmksgtving to God, and Praise of iVIp- 
hammed, the Author details his reasons for 
publishing the account of Ms Travels. 

CjTlobt be. to God^ the Lord of^ all worlds^ 
who has conferred innumerable blessings 
on mankind, and accomplished all the 
laudable desires of his creatures. Praise 
be also to the Chosen of Mankind, the 
traveller over the whole expanse of die 

VOL. I. B 


heavens^ (Mohammed)^ and benedictions 
without end on his descendants and com- 

The wanderer over the &ce of the 
earthy Abu Taleb the son of Mohammed of 
Ispahan^ begs leave to inform the curious 
in biography^ that^ owing to several adverse 
circumstances^ finding it inconvenient to 
remain at home, he was compelled to 
undertake many tedious joiuneys ; during 
which^ he associated with men of all 
nations^ and beheld various wonders^ both 
by sea and by land. 

it therefore occurred to him^ that if 
he were to write all the circumstances of 
his journey through Europe^ to describe 
1^ <mriosities and wonders which he saw^ 
and to give some account of the manners 
and customs of the various nations he 


^ted, all of which are litde known to 
Asiatics^ it would aflbrd a gratifying 
banquet to his countrymen. 

He was also of opimon^ that ibaay 
of the customs^ inventions^ sciences^ and 
ordinances of Europe^ the good effect) 
of which Ure aj^arent in those countriea^ 
might with great advantage be imitated 
by Mohammedans. 
.. • 

Impressed with these ideas^ he^ on his 
:^st setting out on lus Travels^ commenced 
a journal^ in which he daily inserted every 
events and committed to writing such 
reflections as occurred to him at the 
moment : and on his return to Calcutta^ 
in the year of the Hejira 1216 (a.d.ISOS)^ 
having revised and abridged his notes^he 
arranged them in the present form. 

B 2 


I* have named this work Muster Taleby 
fy Bulad Affrenjy—'' The Travels of Taleb 
in the Regions of Europe ;" but when I 
reflect on the want of energy and the 
indolent dispositions of my countrymen^ and 
die many erroneous customs which exist 
in all Mohammedan countries and among 
all ranks of Mussulmans^ I am fearful 
that my exertions will be thrown away. 
The great and the rich, intoxicated with 
pride and luxury, and pufied up with the 
vanity of their possessions, consider uni- 
versal science as comprehended in the 
circle of their, own scanty acquirements 
and limited knowledge ; while the poor 
and common people, from the want of 
leisujre, and overpowered by the difficulty 

' ' • A transition from the third to the first person 
is not uncommon in Persian writers. This exordium 
was not inserted in the First Edition^ as not being 
thought interesting to European readers in general.* 


of procuring' a livelihood, have not time 
to attend to their personal concerns, much 
less to form desires for the acquirement 
of information on new discoveries and 
inventions; although such a passion has 
been implanted by nature in every human 
breast, as an honour and an ornament to 


the species. I therefore despair ot their 
reaping any fhiit from my labours ; beh^ 
convinced that they will consider this book 
of no greater value than the volumes of 
Tales and Romances which they peruse 
merely to pass away their time, or aM 
attracted tiiereto' by the easiness of the 
style. It may consequentiy be conclude^ 
that as they will find no pleasure in reading 
a work which contains a number of fbreigik 
names, treats on unconmfion subjects, and 
afludes to other matters which cannot be 
understood at the first glance, but require 

a little time for consideration, they wiU^ 

B 3 


under pretence of zexd for their religion, 
csilirely abstain and refndn from penis*- 
' it. 

I am however sensible, that my work 
is in many respects deficient, and that my 
inquiries have not had sufficient profundity, 
on that I have not been able satbfeu^torily 
ta explain the result of them. I have also 
to regret that my poverty, and the want 
^ rich patrons, have prevented my havii^ 
drawings and plans made <^ the various 
EUtchines lately invented, and of the edifices 
in which the Arts are cultivated in Europe: 
these would have eluddated my expla* 
luitions, and rendered them easy to every 
eomprehension ; but, according to the Asa- 
\Am Proverb, ^^ We are not to abandon the 
*^ whole, because we cannot obtain the 
^' wbole/* I am therefcMre hopeful that 

the enlightened reader, taking into con^ 


siden^on these difficultiesji will not bie 
deterred by the number of harsh and 
uncouth names which occur in this book 
from giving it a deliberate and unprqu-* 
diced perusal: and let him be assured, 
that by reading this account of the state 
of the Arts and Sciences in Europe, he 
will considerably add to the stock of his 
own knowledge*. 

* Besides this work^ in which there are Odes 
on every subject, the Author wrote at the same time 
a PoeHcal Description of his Travels, which be 
named the Mesnevy, consisting of a thousand verses. 
This circumstance may account for the want of 
cUmacterical wantUh complained of bj some of hit 
reviewers ; and hy others^ that the descriptions are 
not sufficiently replete with Oriental imagery, or flights 
of fancy. On this subject it may however be remarked, 
that the generality of Persian works which have 
hitherto been translated into the languages of Europe 
have been either Poems or Romances, in which such 
imagery is peculiarly appropriate } but that the 
Orientals can and do write in every kind of style, and 




on every siibject^ can only be doubted b^ those 
who are ignorant of their language. In proof of 
this> the reader is referred to the " Descriptive 
Catalogue ' of Tippoo Sultan's Library ;" ^nd par- 
ticnkriy to the Appendix of that work. 



rhe Author gives an account of his origin, and of 
his family. His father becomes a favourite 
of Ahul Munsur Khan Sufder Jung, Naloh 
ofOvde—is appointed Deputy to the Nahol*s 
Nephew, ^he Naloh dies — is succeeded by 
his son Shujaa adDowkh, who becomes jealous 
of his cousin, and arrests (mdpuis him to death 
— suspicious of the adherents of the deceased — 
he attempts to seize the author's father, who 
flies to Bengal. The author's journey to join 
his father at Moorshedabad. His father dies. 
The Nabob Shujaa ad Dowleh dies — is sue- 
ceeded by his son, Assuf ad Dowleh, whose 
minister invites the author to return to Luck- 
now, and bestows on him the appointment of 
Aumildar, or collector of the revenues. The 
minister dies — his successor inimical to the 
author, who is superseded, and retires to 
Lucknou^'^appointed an assistant to Cohnel 

b5 V 

Hamuuff collector of Gorrmckpore^-is removed 
from his office, and returns -to Lmcknow. — 
Lisurrectians in Oude. The author consulted 
by the English on the state of affairs — is 
maplm/ed to reduce Btgak Bulhudder Sing-^ 
surprises the Rcgak^s camp. EnmUg of the 
mimster, Hyder Beg Khan* The author pro^ 
ceeds to Calcuita-'^is well received iy the 
Governor-general — settles in CqJLcutta. Ijord 
Camwallis recommends the author to the Bri-- 
Osh Resident 9 and to the Nabob, at Ijuchnow. 
Jjord ComwalUs leaves India. The Nabob 
quarrels with the Resident, and di smi sse s the 
author, who returns to CkJcuttik'^Being un- 
happy, is invited to make a voyage to Europe 
'^-^igrees — takes his passage— ^he ship is burnt 
^^he engages another vessel. 

J.N commencing the account of my Travels^ 
I think it requisite that the Reader should 
be informed of some circumstances \)i^ch 
occurred antecedtsit to my setting out, and 
be made aoquainted with the geoenl out- 
Cne of my hbtoiy. 


My father was named Hagy Mohaouned 
B^ Khan, by descent a Tuik, but hem afc 
Abbassabad Ispahan. Whilst a ycmng raao^ 
dreading the tyranny of Nadir Shah, be 
fled from Persia^ and, on his arrival la 
India, was admitted into the friendship 
of the Nabob Abnl Monsur Khan Sufder 
Jung. Upon the death of Nowil Ray, de- 
puty governor of Oude, Mohammed Culy 
Khan, nephew of the Nabob, was 
to that important o&ce^ «id my btbex 
nominated one of his assistants. From this 
circumstance, such an intimacy and friend- 
ship took place between them, that my firtfaer 
was considered as one of his feithfiil ad- 

The Nabob Sufder Jui^ died in the 
year of the Hgira II67 (a.d. 1753), and 
was succeeded by lus son, Shu|aa ad Dow- 
leh; who becoming jeakms of his oonsiii^ 

11; ( Dllir, I 


Mohammed Culy Khan^ arrested him^ and 
put him to death. The Nabob being also 
suspicious of the adherents of the deceased^ 
attempted to seize my father^ who^ previous 
to this events had settled his wife and fitmily 
in the cnty of Lucknow. My father re- 
ceived intimation of the Nabob's intentions, 
and' fled, ^th a few of his faithful servants, 
to Bengal ; but so sudden was his depar- 
ture, that he only carried with him his gold 
and jewels. The rest of his property, being 
left, was plundered l^ the soldiers. 

My honoured parent passed a number 
of years in Bengal, beloved and respected ; 
and died at Moorshedabad, in the year of 
the Christian ^era 17 68. 

My mother's &ther was named Abul 
Htesen Beg. He was a religious and 
devour person ; and bdng a townsman of 


the Nabob Borhan Al Mulk Saadit Khan^ 
great grandfather to th^ present sovereign 
of Oude^ had such an affection for bim^ 
that^ after the death of that nobleman, he 
abandoned all worldly af&irs^ and never 
more quitted his house. 

I was born at Lucknow, in the year 
1752: and although the Nabob Shuj^a ad 
Dowleh was much displeased at my father's 
conduct^ he oevertheless, recollecting the 
connexion between our families, supplied 
my mother with money for her expences, 
and gave her strict injunctions to let me 
have the very best education. 

My father, having resolved to continue 
in Bengal, directed my mother tc remove 
thither with all her family. We there- 
fore left Lucknow in the year 176G, and 
{HTOceeded by land as far as Patna, where 


we embarked on board a boat for Moor* 
shedabad. This was my first joum^ ; but 
being then only fourteen years of age, and 
accompanied by my mother^ it was free 

firom anxiety. 


A year and a half after our arrival at 
Moorshedabad^ my £ather died; and the 
whole charge of his affairs^ both pubHc and 
private, devolved upon me. Previous to 
tiiis unfortunate event, my worthy parents 
had betrothed me to the daughter of a near 
relation of MuzufFer Jung, Nabob of Bengal. 
In consequence of this connexion, I re- 
mained several years happy and contented 
in the service of that prince. 

In the year 1775, Assuf ad Dowleh 
succeeded, to the musnud of Oude. On 
this, occasion, I received an invitation from 
his Prime-minister^ Mokhtiar ad Dowleh^ 


to return to Lucknow ; and was i^pointed 
Aumildar^ of Etaya, and several otiier 
districts situated between the rivers Jumnah 
and Ganges. In tUs situation I continued 
for two years ; the greater part of which 
time I lived in tents^ being obliged^ in 
enforcing the collection of the revenues^ 
to make frequent excursions through the 

After the death of my patron^ and the 
appointment of Hyder Beg Khan to his 
office^ I was superseded ; and repdred to 
Lucknow^ where I resided for nearly a year. 
At the expiration of that period^ Colonel 
Alexander Hannay^ having been appointed 
collector of Gorruckpore^ requested the 

* This office, under the native goyemments, united 
the duties of our Lord-lieutenant and Receiver of the 
Taxes of the County: he bad dio a considerable 
military force under bis conunand. 


Nabob's permission to take me with him as 
an assistant. In that situation I continued 
for three years, living the whole of the time 
either in tents, or temporary houses com- 
posed of mats and bamboos. When the 
Colonel was removed firom his office, I 
accompanied him to .Lucknow, and re- 
mained at home for one year unemployed. 

During this period, great dissensions 
existed between the minister, Hyder Beg 
Khan, and the representatives of the 
East-India Company, Messieurs Nathaniel 
Middleton and Richard Johnson; in con- 
sequence of which, and the clandestine 
intrigues of the former, the finances of the 
state were much deranged ; and although 
the collectors extorted larger sums than 
usual from the Zemindars^ the revenues 
annually decreased. The oppressions of 
the collectors were at length carried to 


such an excess^ that many of the Zemindars 
rebelled, the principal of whom was Raja 
Bulbudder Sing. He was lineally descended 
from the ancient Hindoo monarchs of 
Oude ; and having 100,000 Rajpoots (the 
military tribe of Hindoos) at his command, 
coasidered himself as equal to the Nabob 
Vizier, whose authority he therefore dis- 

To reduce this Raja to obedience, an 
army was sent, composed partly of the 
Nabob's troops, and partly of the Com- 
pany's Sepoys ; but, owing to the intngues 
of Hyder Beg Khan and the collectors, 
this measure failed of success. 

Such was the deranged state of the 
Nabob's affairs, that Mr. Hastings (Go- 
vernor-general) deemed it requisite to in- 
terfere. He, in consequence, ordered Mr. 


Middleton to said for and consult me on 
the best mode of reducix^ the Rajo^ and 
of restoring the country to order. 

As I was convinced that Hyder Bc^ 
Khan was the person who had contrived 
to tiiirow the Nabob's affairs into confusion ; 
and that^ while he continued in office, every 
endeavour on my part would only serve to 
irritate him, and be the probable cause of 
my own ruin; I declined any interference : 
but the Resident persisting in his entreaties, 
and swearing to support and protect me 
against all enemies, I at lei^h eonsentoi 
ta be employed. 

During two years, I frequently defeated 
and pursued Bulbudder Sing; and at length, 
having surprised his camp, he was l^bd 
in endeavouring to make his esei^. . By 
this servive, I rid the Nabob of an ,tmaaf 


of his ftasSiy for the last sixty years^ and 
restored order and good government in the 

But from that period I may date the 
ruin o{ myself and family ; for shortly after, 
Mr. Middleton having been removed from 
Lucknow, and Governor Hastings having 
proceeded to Europe^ I was left without 
any protection against the machinations oi 
my enemies. 

Hyder B^ Khan^ bavii^ by his cunning 
and hypocrisy gained the favour of the new 
Governor-general^ behaved to me for some 
years ostensibly with attention and kindness, 
and even wished to ensnare me to accept 
of an employment under him; but failing 
in this attempt, he quarrelled with me, and 
stopt the allowance of 6,000 rupees per 
annum which I received from the Nabob 


for my support. I therefore found it irri- 
possible to remain at Lucknow, and resolved 
again to travel to Bengal. 

In the year 1787, I embarked on the 
Ganges^ and proceeded to Calcutta^ where 
I stated my complaint to Lord Cornwallis. 
His lordship received me very politely, and 
made many promises . of assistance ; but 
being just then about to embark for Madras, 
and to take the command of the arn^y 
against Tippoo Sultan, my business was 
delayed for four years. During this period, 
I sent for my family to Calcutta ; and my 
friends, seeing no hope of my getting into 
' office, dispersed themselves in various places. 

The great expence which I had incurred 
by the removal of myself and family fr6m 
such a distance, added to the building of 
a house in the vicinity of Calcutta for cor 


residence, quite overwhelmed me with debt. 
My distress and misery were further in- 
cjreased by the deadi of my son, a beautifiil 
boy of four years old, who fell a sacrifioe 
to the unhealthy cUmate, and ignorance of 
the (native) physicians of Calcutta. 

When Lord Comwallis returned to 
Bengal, he recollected his promise to me ; 
and Hyder Beg Khan being then dead, he 
sent me, in the year 17 92, with letters of 

recommendation to Mr. Cherry, the Resi- 
dent of Lucknow, and to the Nabob Assuf 
ad Dowleh, with an assurance that they 
would speedily provide for me. 

In consequence of these letters, I was 
most graciously received at Lucknow, both 
by the Nabob and his courtiers ; and was 
in daily hopes of an appointment, when, 
unfortunately for me. Lord Comwallis quit- 

fist THE TRAV8L8 09 

ted India^ and all my expectations were 
blasted ; for, shortly after^ the Nabob quar- 
relled with Mr. Cherry, and got him remoired 
from Lucknow. He also sent me orders 
to quit that city ; and although I remon* 
strated against such injustice, my complaints 
were not listened to. I therefore left a 
part of my family at Lucknow ; and having 
sent the reminder to Allahabad, I pro- 
ceeded, in the year 1793, a third time to 

Sir John Shore (now Lord Tdgnmouth), 
who was then Governor-general, xeceived 
me kindly, and promised me assistance^ 
but the Nabob Assuf ad Dowleh dying soon 
afterwards, the confusion created by Vizier 
Aly Khan, and the multiplidty of business 
caused by that event, did not leave him 
Idsure to think of my affidiB before h» 
embarked for Europe. 


During the three years of expectation 
which I passed in Calcutta^ all my depen-^ 
danta and adherents^ seeing my distress, 
left me ; and even some of my children^ 
and the domestics brought up in my father's 
£an(uly^ abandoned me. In this situation 
I was quite overcome with grief and de* 
spondeucy; when one day my friend Captain 
David Richardson^ a Scotchman, came to 
visit me. As this gentleman perfectly un^ 
derstands both the Persian and Hindoostany 
languages, we conversed on various subjects : 
and at length he informed me, that, as he 
found his health on the decline, he meant 
shortly to embark for Europe, in hopes 
that his native air might renovate his con- 
stitution ; lihd that he should return to 
India in three years. He added, '^ As you 
are without employment, and appear de- 
pressed in mihd, let me request you to 
accompany me. The change of scene^ 



^^ and the curiosities you will meet with in 


Europe^ will disperse the gloom that now 
hangs over you. I will undertake to 
teach you English during the voyage, 
and provide for all your wants.'* After 
having considered his proposal for some 
time, I reflected, that, as the journey was 
long and replete with danger, some accident 
might cause my death, by which I should 
be delivered from the anxieties of this 
world, and the ingratitude of mankind. 
I therefore accepted his friendly offer, and 
resolved to undertake the journey. 

That no time might be lost, I went on 
the following day and agreed for my passage 
in the Charlotte, one of the East-India 
Company's ships ; but in a few days after- 
wards, this vessel was unfortunately burned. 
Notwithstanding this unpropitious event, as 
Captain Richardson and I were determined 


on the business^ we went immediately and 
engaged a passage in the Christiana^ Cap- 
tain Netdeman^ bound for Denmark. 

■■• • '.v ' 


VOL. I. C 

i6 HikE »AVBM OP 

« . . » • .. . ■ 

I • 

CHAP. 11. 

The Auiher leaves Calcutta — arrives at Kedjeree 
-"'embarks on board a vessel bound to Den- 
mark* Description of the shifr-^character of 
the certain and officers. The ship sails to the 
mmUh of the river. Embargo — disagreeable 
state of suspense. An English vessel burned 
while at anchor — plundered by the DanM 
captain. The French frigate La Fbrte cap* 
tmred by an English frigate^ both of which 
pass up the river. The embargo taken off. 
The author proceeds on his voyage. 

On the 1" of Ramzan, a.h. 1213 (Feb. 
7^i 1799)9 we ^<x>l^ leave of ourfriends^ and 
embarked at Calcutta, on board a budgeraw 
(baige), in order to proceed to the ship. 
On the third day we arrived at Kedjeree^ 
where we found the vessel at anchor. We 
shordy after went on board; and eadi ^f us 

took possession of ht^ cabin. We found 
the ship in the greatest disorder ; the crew 
principally composed of indolent and in- 
experienced Bengal Lascars.; and the cabins 
small, dark, and stinking, especially that 
allotted to me, the very recollection of which 
makes me melancholy. The fact i^^bs^ that 
as Captain Richardson and myself were the 
last who tocik our pa^^sag^^ all. the good 
apartments had been, previously secured by 
our £elloW; passengers ; ,but as we ^lajips^d 
our money in Calcutta, and it was impossible 
to get it returned, we were compelled to 
take what they chose to give ^s. 

. . . f ' 

In the next cabin to.nupe,^ qn one^side 
was a Mr. Grand, a very; passipni^te and 
delicate gentleman ; and on the other si49 
were three children^ one.of , whom^ agiii 
thiree years^ old, wa^ very bad tempere4> 
and cried nigl^t fun/i 4?iy V ^ ^^ :^^^^^ 


inconveniences and distresses which I su& 
fered on board this ship were a great 
drawback from the pleasures I afterwards 
experienced in my travels. 

Our agreement was, that the ship should 
be well supplied with water, liquors, and 
provisions ; and that we were to be con- 
veyed direct to EuFope, without stopping 


any where on the way. On this account 
we looked forward to a speedy and pleasant 

The first breach of promise we experi- 
enced from the captain, was his desiring 
us to go on board, stating that he would 
certainly follow us the next day ; instead of 
which, he remiuned a fortnight longer in 
Calcutta, to finish his own business. It is 
unnecessary to say, how disagreciahle'sudi 
a delay was to us^ who had' notk^iig to 


amuse our minds, aiid were anxious to 
proceed on our voyage. At the end of 
fifteen days, he arrived, and gave orders to 
unmoor the ship. 

This captain was a proud self-sufficient 
fellow. His first officer, who was by birth 
an American, resembled an iUUtempered 
growling mastiff, but understood his duty 
very weU. The second office, and the 
other mates, were low people, not wort^r 
of being spoken to, and quite ignorant of 

On the 1 6th -of the month we left 

Kedjeree, and proceeded towiurds the moutib 

of the river. During our passage down^ 

we had several narrow escapes. Our vessd 

drew thirteen feet and a half of water ; and 

we passed over several sands on whidi 

there were hot six inches more water than 



we drew. Had the ship tcAiched the ground; 
as the tide was mnning out, we should 
have stock there, and probably have been 

Hie next morning, when we were about 
tbweigh anchor, a pilot sloop came aloii^- 
isiide, and iniTormed us, that a French frigate, 
eatfed La 'F^rte, was cruising at the Sand 
Heads, and had taken sevend vessels ; that 
an embargo had in consequence been or* 
dered; and that we must not depart till it 
was rescinded. 

As it would have been attended with 
delay and danger to return up the river, k 
was Tesdyed we should remain at anchor 
iwhere we were, till the embargo should be 
takeoi cifF. During our stay at Kedjereie, 
wt had been r^ularly supplied with fresh 
bread, butter^ ^gs, fish, and vegetables, 


MI&ZA ABU TJOi^JL Jf:|iAN. g | 

from.liie shore ;.>butr.a8 thejbai49 wq^. npt 
coaie down SQ &ti^ where the ^sh^ now 
hjy we were , r^uced tQ ea^ bi^iciHt and 8«lt 

butter, and. in comme^c^ the con^ 


sumption of our sea stores. We suffered 
another great inconvenienoe fix>ili fflies^ 
whichj notwithstanding ; our 4i^tam^ * from 
the shore^ swarmed.. in sucb^numbeors .on 
boards that we coidd iiot speak 'mthcmt 
holing our hands to our moutiis^ lest thejr 
should go down our throats. ' 

I x" 

We passed twenty days ifx this wretched 

state of suspense. One day we heard the 

sound of cannon at a distance, and con- 

eluded > that. ^me of the !^lnglisl)i shipa;pf 

war stationed at Madras had been d^- 

spatched to attack thei Frenchman. Shortly 

after we saw three ships coming up with all 

^1 crowded : this circumstance confirmed 

pur conjectures ; but when they arrived, 

c 4 


we learnt that thigr were three out of four 
English ships which, had Men in with the 
enemy's frigate^ and had engaged her ; that 
^ley had escaped^ but the fourth was taken. 

A few lughts after^ an English ship 
which was anchored near us, loaded chiefly 
with Bengal cloths^ caught fire, and dread- 
fully alarmed us. The crew abandoned her, 
^nd she burnt to the water's edge. Our 
captain^ who was bound to his own countryj 
and not fearing to be called to account by 
the English, sent his boat on board her for 
sef eral days successively, and brought away 
a number of chests of half-consumed cloth. 
He had occasion, however, to repent this 
conduct in the sequel. 

Another day we saw several ships coming 
up, one of which appeared to have French 
colours suspended under the English : we 


tben concluded that the firigate had cer- 
tainly been taken ; but on their near i^-. 
proach^ we discovered it was an Arab vessel, 
in which the Frenchman had sent up aE 
his prisoners ; and that those in company 
were only pilot schooners. 

On the last day of the months we 
received authentic intelligence that an Eng- 
lish ship had arrived from Madras^ and, 
after a severe contest^ had captured the 
French frigate. Shortly after, Captain Cook, 
commander of La SibyUe, who had been 
severely wounded in the action, and dleA 
some days afi;er his arrival in C>akutta, 
passed by us. 

On the 3d of the month Shual (4th or 

5th of March), the two ships cast anchor 

near us. La Sibylle was severely injured ; 

but La Forte, which was much the largest 

c 5 


vessel^ had not a mast standings and was 
towed up the river by her conqueror. The 
English lost only twenty-five men during 
the engagement ; whilst the French had 
tUdr captain and 200 men killed or wound- 
ed. This circumstance was the cause of 
much astonishment to all of us. On the 
following day, fifteen sloops, each having 
on board a guard of soldiers, came down 
the river, for the conveyance of the prisoners 
to Calcutta* 

Permission having been at length grant- 
fed for the ihips to proceed on their voyage, 
tlie pilot again came on board ; and having, 
on the 8th of the month, carried us into 
the deep water, called, by the English, the 
Bay of Bengal, he took his leave. 



Commencement of the voyage. The captain Jatis 
it requisite to go to the Nicobar Islands for 
water. Phcenomena. Descripiion of the 
Nicobar Islands — their produce^ inhabitants, 
&c. Several of the Lascafrs^ or Ihdian 
sailors J desert the ship, and conceal themsehm 
in the woods — brought back by ihe-iuahm^^ 
Infamous conduct of the captcmon this oc- 
casion. The ship leaves the islands. Stm 
vertical. Calms. Polar star. Equinoctial * 
line. Curious ceremony on passing the line. 
Shoal of flying-fish. Trade winds. The 
ship passes the longitudes of the islands of 
Mauritius and Madagascar. Gale of wind. 
Sufferings of the author. The coast of Africa 
in sight. Whales approach the vessel. We 
descry the Table Mountain of the Cape of 
Good Hope. The captain resolves to go into 
the port. The ship carried to the southward 


ly the current. Dreadful storm* The 
mUhor^s reflections. The vessel loses her 
reckormg'—is in great cUstress^again discovers 
the land — anchors in False Bay. 

▼V B proceeded for several days on our 
voyage with a fiEivourable mnd ; when one 
mormng we discovered that the captain had 
altered the ship*s course, from south to 
south-east This circumstance created in 
^ passengers much astonishment; but the 
^planatioii only added to our mortification: 
6ie foct was, our stock of water had been 
to much e9q>ended during our detention at 
ttie mouth of the river, that it now became 
requisite to bear away for the Nicobar 
Islands, in order to replenish that indispoi* 
sable article. 

' Thesie islands, which are about seven- 
M0ri in number, are more or less inhabited, 
and arie frequently resorted • to by ships 


ift want of water or provisions. * We at- 
tempted to reach the largest^ which is ctdled 
the Ccemicobar, but were blown off. We 
were equally unsuccessful in attempting to 
gain the second ; but with great efforts we 
anchored after midni^t near the third* 

In our aj^oach to these islands^ a 
circumstance occurred which was quite 
novel to me. When we came in sight of 
tlie land^ I wished to behold it more disr 
tinctly^ and for that purpose borrowed a. 
tdescope; but uponi^plying the instrument 
to my eye^ I could not distinguish the land* 
Being astonished at this circumstance^ I 
requested one^of the most intdligent o|&cers 
to explain to me the cause of it. He 
replied : ^^ These islands are^ in feet, still 
^^ below the horizon^ being concealed from 
'i our view by the spherical body of water 
^f between us and them ;: and what we now 



^^ bohuld is caused by the power of refrao^ 
'^ tion, which, in a dense atmosphere; 
^^ apparently ruses all bodies consideraUjr 
^^ above their real altitude/' More plaiufy 
to elncidate this axiom, he threw a ring 
into a China bowl, ai^d carried it; to stidia 
distance that I could no longer see the ring. 
He then filled the bowl with water, when, 
hy the refractive power, the ring ii^pear^ 
to float on the top of the wat^r. As this 
esqdanation, although interesting, do^ , not 
solve the dififitculty, it is probable th^ tde« 
scope WES out of order,, or that they played 
me some trick on this occasion. 

After this digression, I return to my 
narrative. The island at which we an-* 
chored is. named Tribiser, and is about 
forty-five miles in circumference : the two 
others in sight were called Rajoury and 
Bigou. Several of the inhabitants came off • 


to US from all the three idands^ and brought 
with them abundance of delicious cocoa- 
nuts^ pine-apples, plantains, limes, andotber 
fruits, also ducks and Ibwls^ all. of which 
they readily exchanged for doth, tobaccok, 
and any kind of cutlery ;. but they did not 
appear to set much vakie upon gold of 
^Iver, these precious metals not being yet 
current among them* 

Cocoa-nuts are here in such abundance^ 
that ten of them were given for & tobacco 
cheroot or sagar, winch costs less than a 
ferthing in Bengal. 

^ These islands being* situated near the 
Equinoctial line, have two Springs and two 
Autdmns ; and as the sun had lately passed 
to the^north of the line, we had incessant 
showers ofntin« 


Hie inhabitants are well made^ and very 
muscalar. They are of a lively disposition^' 
and resemble the P^guers and Chinese in 
features^ but are of a wheat colour^ with 
scarcely any beard. Their clothing consists 
merely of a narrow bandage round the 
waist. Being allowed to go on shore for 
the purpose of shootings we had freque)i| 
opportunities of seeing their children^ many 
of whom I thought very handsome. Hieir 
houses are built of wood and bamboos^ with 
diatcfaed roofii, and are always circular^ 
resembling a. stack of com. Sevend qi 
them^ however^ consist of three stories; the 
ground floor being kept for the goats^ 
poultry^ &c. The middle story is appro- 
pirifetted to the men^ and the upjper story to 
thewonien. They are. of the Mohammedan 
religion^ and keep their women concealed^ 
not permitting them to have any conmiuilir 
cation with strangers. Hiey build v^ 


neatboats^ and have even constructed two 
or three ships in the European manner*, 
I was so much captivated by. the mildness of 
the climate^ the beauty of the plains and 
rivulets^ and with the kind of life and free^ 
dom which the men enjoyed^ that I had 
nearly resolved to take up my abode among 

Having replenished our stock of water^ 
and received on board a considerable suppfy 
of provisions^ our captain was about to 
dq>art^ when a circumstance occurred wluck 
occasioned some delay^ and much doubt 
whether we should have been able to pro-r 
ceed any further on our voyage. The &c& 
was this :. sbcteen of pur best Lascars (on 
Indian sailors)^ being much disgusted with 
the treatment they received on board thi^ 
slup^ des^ed^ and hid themselves in the 
woods; and it was disipovered, that the 


rem Wider of the arew xinly waited the ap- 
proach of night to follow the example of 
their comrades. Jn tlus dilemma, some 
of the principal people of the island for- 
tunately came on board ; and dreading ib6 
imputation of being in collusion with the 
deserters, they • voluntarily :offered to bring 
them back ; and the captain, who at tfaii 
period considered himself in a very critical 
situation, bound himseU, by the most sjetcred 
promises^ to give them for their trouble a 
number of pieces of the cloth whioh be 
had plundered from the ship burned ixk^bo 
Ganges. Stimulated by these promises^ 
and being well acquainted with the woods 
4nd mountains, they in a short time caught 
die deserters, and during the ni^t br^i^bt 
them on board. Hie ungrateftd wrtldi ^ 
a captain, however, repaid their exertioM 
and kindness l^ the grossest treach^iy; 
for, pretending that he coidd not open the 


hold while it was dark, to take out tjie doth^ 
he promised^ that if thqr would then go 
away^ and return in the mornings he would 
reward them liberally ftM* their . trouble ; 
but as soon is the day broke^ he w^ghed 
anchor^ and, before the- islanders were 
^rware of his intention, the vessel . had prcn 
eeeded many miles to the southward. 

• * 

We quitted these friendly islands on 
flie 4th of ApHl ; and three days afterwards 
iire had the sun vertical^ in the seventb 
degree of northern latitude : the heat was 
eohsequently very great ;. and for a fortnight 
we had much rainy weather^ attended with 
calms. Our progress was now very slow ; 
ftnd some days We had not above ten miles 
on our log-book. It is generally observed^ 
&at calms prevail in the vicinity of the 
Equinoctial line : this I su{^K>se is caused 
by the influence of the siin. 


On the night of th^ l6th^ beuig then 
near the line^ and the atmosphere, p e rfeetiy 
dear^ we observed the polar star with great 
attention. The constellations Ursa Major 
and Minor appeared to be elevated above 
the polar star^ equal to the altitude whidi 
that star has in Calcutta ; wlule the latter 
was sunk nearly to the margin of the 
horizon. I am therefore of opinion that 
the polar star is sddom seen nearer to the 
line than the fourth or fifth degree of 
northern latitude ; and^ in hct, we did not 
agun see it till^ after having doubled the 
Cape and re-crossed the line, we arrived a 
second time in the sibove latitudes. 

On the 19th we crossed the Equinociial 
line, in the 1 00th d^ree east lon^tude of 
London. For several days past we had 
iseen a tiumber of birds, some as large as 
a goose, and others about the size of a 


pigeon. Hiey live entirely upon fish, and 
rest on the water during the night. When 
they wish to propagate thdr spedes, they 
gain the coast by degrees, and remain on 
shore during the time of incubation. One 
of the smaller kind alighted during the m^at 
upon a mast of our vessel, and was cau^^ 
by the sailors : it was probably unwell, for 
when it was turned loose next morning, 
it could with difficulty fly away. 

On this day the sailors exhibited a 
ridiculous &rce. Three of the principal 
ones dressed themsdves in a strange man- 
ner, and, having daubed their frees with 
red and yellow paint, came upon the deck^ 
their dothes and artificiai hair dripping 
with water. One of them carried a boojc^ 
and another a tnmqiet : the third was moi^ 
extravagantly dressed, and i^^ieared the 
fliqierior. Qiairs haviiig |een cfffieredy th^ 


seated themselves ; when the trumpetei: 
proclaimed^ that Neptune, god of the Sea, 
had honoured the ship by a visits on its 
approach to his residence. The inoek 
deity then commanded^ that all persons on 
board, who had tiot before* crossed the line^ 
should be summoned to appear, and that 
they should be cleansed frorti all thdr for- 
mer sins by immediate ablution. Maby 
of the young men and boys, who had not 
before witnessed this ceremony, being alarm- 
ed, ran and hid themselves ill different 
places, and some of them even climbed to 
the of the masts ; but the secretary^ 
opening his book, read over the name of 
every person who was liable to this i disd* 
I^ine^ and iiusisted upon-his being inrom^ 
to the presence. Hie culprit^ hffviiig'iiK 
eyes bounds' was then ib^cecb to'ait oita 
plank/ wMch was laid across-^ tHb/>:aBd 
several bucketed ol the sea water wese piowisci 

over fais head ; aiid the plank being at the 
same tiihe Atsewn from under him^ he waa 
immersed in the tub. When it came to 
my tum^ by the mediation of one of the 
officers^ and. a present o^ some bottli^ of 
bmtidy, I WB» excused i thiiF disagreeabU 
cef^meriy ; wnA the ftirce hai^ng termindted^ 
Neptune and -his cOmpainions returned, ap^ 
parentlyy to their subma^ne ^bode^ 
,1- ..... 

On tte 25lh We saw a numerous shoal 
of 'flying* fish. Mftny of these rose three 
or ufouT': yards high) tod^flew nearly the 
distattee.ofi 500 paces. The motion of 
their wings was exactly like that of a'bii^; 
and althou^ I had frequently heard them 
degeribed %^ trairell^, I '^uld tiot credit 
tlto^ report, btit'suppoi^d their motiori wiili 
llrtt of kaph%r bdtlani now perfectly 
<S>imn<5€id thef may be classed ^mong iht 
fl]4ng taiflJUtAiw Many ^ Dtem fell iipon 


the 8hq>, and were served at tabk. Ithongiit 
them good food^ and fiuicied they had 
someinAiat the flavour of a Inrd. 

Havii^ readied the fifth degree of souUi 
latitude^ we perceived the weather get cooh 
siderably cooler^ although the sun was not 
yet jtwenly degrees from us. When we 
arrived in the twelftti d^ree, the atmo- 
sphere being remarkably clear^ I sought in 
the heavens for some star whidi mi^t 
point out the southern pole ; but we could 
not even find any constellation correspond-' 
ing dther mik the Ursa Major or Afimr, 
much less a polar star. 

On the 27th we entered the region of 
the trade mada. This being one of the 
pbsenomena of nature^ it requires some 
explanation. Hie European navigators 
have^ by expeneoce, discovered, ' that be- 


tvc^eenthe 10th and astii degrees of southern 
latitude the wind ooastantty. blows from 
the south east, wfaidi is ecpally serviceable 
to slHp» coming to India or returning from 
it, and conveys them :nqn<fiy ikrou^ ^^ty 
degrees of longitude. It is generally sup- 
posed^ that if k waa not for the intervening 
of the Cape of Good H<^. and of &utti 
America, ships mi^t circumnavigate the 
globe in these latkudes in a very short 
period. As these winds were first disco^ 
vered by. pe^le emjdoyed in trade, and 
are very favourable to commerce, tbqr have 
been named 3kMb. Winds: but, excqit 
in the latitudes above mentioned, the course 
of the winds during the voyage is variable 
and uneertain. 

■ During the first week of< May, mhikt 

we were sailing in the fifteenth degree of 

south latitude, the wa ves were so agitated 

VOL. I. 


hy the wincb^ that thef rose n» high as the 
ship^ and frequently entered by the quarter- 
galleries and stem^windows. It was im- 
possible to sleep for the noise^ and we qould 
not walk on deck without great, diffioulity. 

Although we were then only thirly-one 
degrees from the sun^ yet the eqld. was so 
severe that we were dUiiged to put on our 
warm clothing, and. spread blankets and 
quilts on our beds. It appeared to me 
very extraordinary, that the month of May, 
bdng the hottest part of theyear in Bengal, 
should be so ■ extreme^ obld here. We 
passed the island of: Mauritius, and the 
south end of Madagascar, at the distance 
• of sixty or seventy leagues. The latter^ 
I understand, is governed by a Mohammedan 
long, and the Arabic language is s^ioken 
in some parts of it. 


As from our first' settii^ out on this 
voyage w^ had great apprdiensions of beb^ 
captured by the French, who were then at 
war with the English, our fears were ihct^as- 
ed ten-fold whilst in the vicinity of their 
islands ; and if by chance a ship was dis- 
covered by our glasses, we conieluded it 
was an enemy, ^nd were almost reduced 
to despair: we were however fortunate 
enough not to be mdiested by any of them. 

About this time we had a dreadful 

storm, wluch lasted four days, during which 

period the sea ran mountains high ; and 

the force of the wtives striking against the 

ship was such as to preclude the possibility 

of standing ; and even when seated, our 

heads were knocked with violence against 

ikie sides of the slnp. During this scene, 

Mr, Grand, who was of ah -eno>rmous size, 

and whose cabin was separated from mine 



only by a canvas partition, fell with all his 
wdlght upon my breast, and hurt me exces- 
sively. What rendered this circumstance 
more provoking was, that if, by any accident, 
the smallest noise was made in my apart- 
ment, he would call out, with all that 
overbearing insolence which characterizes 
the vulgar part of the English in their 
conduct to Orientals, ^^What are you about? 
" you don't let me get a wink of sleep !" 
and such other rude expressions. 

During the «torm, it was with much 
difficulty we could get any provisions dress- 
ed ; and these we were obliged to eat sitting 
in our beds. ' To add to oiu* distress, the 
leaks of the ship, which at the commence- 
ment of the voyage, were only trifling, now 
increased to such a degree, that the pumps 
were kept at work both day and night. 
Thi3 circumstance much i^rmed many of 


the passengers ; but^ for my part^ I was so 
tired of life^ that I became perfectly indif- 
ferent about our fate. 

Notwithstanding the raging of the ele^ 
ments^ we saw several birds whose form 
did not appear calculated to contend with 
storms. Their body was not larger than a 
kite's, but their wings extended nearly four 

On the 24th of May we had a view of 
part of the continent of Africa, about 200 
miles to the north of the Cape of Good 
Hope ; and althotig;h we had not the most 
distant intention of going on shore here, 
yet the si^t of land brov^t tears into 
my eyes. While sailing along thi^ coast, 
we had frequent opportunities of seeing one 
of the wonders of the deep. Several fi^ies 

called whales approached so close to the 

D 3 


ship^ that we eould view them distinctly. 
Th^ weie four times the si^ of the largest 
elephant, and had immense nostrils^ whence 
they threw up the water to the height of 
fifteen yards.- As these animals are oUiged 
Irequantiy to oome to the t<^ of the sea 
for. the purpose of respiration, thc^ are 
easily discovered, and are killed by the 
Europeans finr the sake, of their oil, sperma- 
ceti, and whalebone, all of which are articles 
of great value. The capture of them is 
however attended with much dai^r, and 
requires great dexterity. 

During the remainder of the month, we 
had sueh dreadful Weather, that for several 
days and n^ts we could not see either the 
sun or stars s and as the waves were con- 
stantly dashing over the ship, we were 
okiigcd to keep the hatches covoied ; there- 
by excluding all light, and compelling us 

either to sit in darkness^ or constantly to 
bum candles^ of i^ich tbdre was a great 
scarcity on board. In shorty we passed our 
time like dead bodies shtlt up in dark and 
confined cells : and had it not been for 
the incessant noise and jarring of the ele- 
ments, we might have suj^osed ourselves 
inhabitants of the nether world. Often 
did I think of the verse of Hafiz t • 



Dark is the nighty and dreadful the no^se of the 
waves and whirlpool. 

Little do they know of our situation^ who are 
travelling roertrily on the Aore." 

On the 4th of June we came in sight 

of the high Und of the Cape^ called Tabk 

Mountain ; and shortly after had a view 

of Table Bay^ at the bottom of which ii 

atuated the Cape Town. It was now 

made known^ that our water and provisions 

being nearly expended^ it was requisite wid 



should go into the port for .a fitesh supjdy. 
Although ithis was.coniarary to our agreement 
with the captain^ and the nieasure would 
probably be jUAtended mth much dcday and 
expence to the passengers^ yet^ as there 
was no other remedy^ we were obliged to 
consent. As but a few hours of the day 
remfiined^ and it was thought dangerous^ 
on account of the rocks^ to enter the- bay 
in the dark, it was determined that the 
ship should stand off and on during the 
night, and proceed in early next morning. 
It so happened, that throughout the night 
the wind was extremely favourable, and 
we might have been all landed without 
any trouble or expence at Cape Town ; 
bat^ contrary to our . hopes, the seeond 
officer/ having, gone ; to sleep during, his 
watch, allowed .thie i^ip to run so far to 
the southward,- that .during the whole of 
the next day wjecould not rc^gain the land: 


A second night was therefore passed in 
tacking backward and forward ; and on the 
following morning, when we were about 
to enter the bay, a sudden storm^ accom- 
panied by thunder and lightning, came on, 
which carried us, before it ceased, five 
d^rees to the. southward. The ship was 
also struck by the lightning, three of the 
crew were killed, and two others severely 
burned. . . 

For the benefit of my countiymen who 
may be inclined, to travel, I shall here 
relate a few of the hardships and morti- 
fications which I endured on board this 
ship, in hopes that they will take warning 
by my sufferings, and derive some advan- 
tage from my experience. In the first 
place, I must advise them never to embark 
in any but an English vessel; and if they 

are not possessed of sufficient wealth to 



provide themselves with a number of ar- 
ticles^ not to tmdertake the voyage. 

' I shall comprise the miseries of this 
Ship under four classes : 

The first is that to which every ship 
is liable; viz. the want of good breads 
butter, milk, fruit, and vegetables ; to which 
are to be added, drinking stinking water, 
and washing the mouth with salt water; 
also the impurity of being shut up with 
dogs and hogs, and the difficulty of getting 
to and from the quarter-gallery, with the 
danger of being wet, or drowned, wlule 
ihiere/ To these I should add, the state 
of suspense and agitation to which a person 
is constantly exposed, the confinement in 
one place, and the sickness caused by the 
motion of the ship. 


The secxHid claas. turoisc from wipt of. 
wealth ; vi:^. a dmall taad dark cabUi^ and 
the consequent deprivation of ab aiid li^ht i 
the neglect of servants ^ die want of a dup^ 
cot^ on account of the (^sfieienoy of room; 
and the tyranny or rudeness of my ndg^ 
bours^ who ever studied their own eonre- 
nienee at my esqpence. 

The third class is confined to foreigners^ 
by which> I mean persons who are not 
£ur(^>eans; viz. the difficulty of shaving 
oneself; the cuttmg of one's own beard and 
nails; not having any private place fm 
ablution; the necessity of eating with » 
knife and hfk; and die impossibility of 
purification. From the latter I suffered 
much inconvenience; lor as it was only 
customary on bo«trd to draw up water in 
buckets early m the mornings at which time 
all the crew waited themselves and wkat< 

e?er dse they tiequired, I was frequentTjr 
under the necessity of drawing it up whe» 
I wanted it, in one of my own copper 
vessels ^ hot during the rough weather 
many of these were lost iii the attempt^ 
and I was at last reduced . to- one ewerr 
I therefore relinquished the practice of 
purification, and was consequently incapa- 
citated from the other duties of our religion. 
.: The fourth class is confined to siiips 
Tiot bdon^ng to the English; viz. noise- 
and tumult when any business is doncf 
the abusive language made use of while 
heavii^.the anchor ; the quantity oi bilge- 
water allowed to remain in the ship; and 
the unnecessary destruction of every thing 
on board. To these may be added, the 
quantity of stinking salt fish and putrid 
eggs of wludi the sea store is composed, 
and the absurd custom of the crew lying 
on the wet decks ; with a total want of 


discipline in the sailors^ and science in the- 


It was from a thorough knowledge of 
all these circumstances, that my good friend 
Mr. Augustus Brooke of Calcutta strongly 
advised me not to embark in any but an* 
Ekiglish ship ; but finding I was determined 
to go in the Dane^ he repeatedly desired 
I would carry on board a number of dried 
fruits^ preserves^ biscuits^ &c. and also take 
irith me a plentiful supply of warm clothing. 
Not content with this advice alone^ he sent 
me a present of all these things : and 
fortunate it was for me that I had such a 
biofid^ as mthout these articles I should 
cither have died of hunger^ or perished 
with tiie cold. 

Tlie gale abated on the ISfh of the 
months but our condition was not much 


improved thereby; as^ in consequence «{ 
our not seeing the sun for several days^ 
and not having a correct Ephemeris on 
boards together with the want of skill in 
the officers, .we had conopletely lost oui 
reckoning; and not a person in the ship 
could tell where we were, or how we ought 
to steer. To add to our <&tresses^ it was 
now discovered that we had only water for 
a few days remaining. Thus we werd 
nearly reduced to despair; and had it not 
been for the mercy of God, we must harre 
perished. During this dreadful stastte d 
suspense, and at a time when all the officers 
supposed we were far to the w6st of the 
Cape, and nearly half way to Stv Hdenaj 
it happened that the Btewav4 9^ the shif^ 
who possessed a keen sight, and. who had 
made several voyages to India, came on 
the poop to ascertain the quantily of 
poultry remaining, Hiying. ca9jtr:h^ €^ef 


iMem of the ship^ he exclaimed, '^ Tbere 
- is the land ! You are leaving it behind 
^ you.*' On hearing this joyful news, some 
if the officers went to the mast head, and 
i^ith their spy-glasses clearly discerned the 
and, but even then could not say what 
ilaoe it was: they however put the ship 
haut and stood towards it, and in the 
xmrse of a few hours ascertained it to be 
he Table Mountain and Sugar-loaf HiU 
rf the Cape*. This intelligence roused 
he drooping spirits of the crew, and every 
sxertion vtras made to gain the wished- 
:or port. 

On the 21st we we were opposite the 
mtrance' of Table Bay ; but the monsoon 
laving changed, it became requisite that we 

• Two mountains so called from their resembling 
those ardclei . 


should now go to False Bay; no vessd 
being permitted to enter the former after 
a certain period, when the wind, coming 
to the south west, renders it, for four 
months in the year, a very unsafe anchor- 
age. On thb account the Governor has 
positive orders not to allow any ship to 
enter the port, and even to fire can- 
non at them if they refuse to obey the 

On the evening of the 23d. of July 
we mth some difficulty entered False- Bay ; 
but as it soon became dark, we were obliged 
to cast anchor, lest the ship should run on 
the rocks. On the following morning we 
again got under weigh, and at noon an- 
chored opposite the town. 

Tliis town is situated at the bottom of 
a verdant mountain^ clothed with a varied 


)t flowers and odoriferous herbs* It con* 
Ists of about thirty houses only : these are^, 
tt)tvever> very reguiar and well built, and 
ach of them contains a pipe of running 
rater : it is therefore peculiarly well adapted 
s a place of refreshment for ships during 
le south-west monsoon. We accordingly 
3und sixteen -vessels lying here, two of 
^hich were men of war, stationed to 
rotect the haiixnu: against the French. 
is a long time had ei^edsince 1 had seen 
iie habitations of men^ I was much struck 
ith the i^pearance of this town, and the 
eauties of its port ; nor did I ever before 
fcperience such pleasing sensations as 
hen I landed there. 

On the 24th, all the passengers, accept 
lyself, went on shore ; for as I had very 
ttle money with me, I dreaded the expence,. 
od remained on board. My situatioa 


was however rendered more comfortable 
by the supplies of fresh provisions^ fruit, 
&c. which were daily received from the 



The author disembarkSf artd hires lodgings at 
False Bay — description of his landlord and 
family — is hospitably received by the Com- 
mandant of the British troops — marked atten- 
tion of the officers of the Royal navy — 
improper conduct of his landlord — he deter- 
mines on proeeedmg to Cape Town — account 
of his journey. Description of the town, 
and remarks occasioned thereby. Character 
of the Dutch inhabitants, and their conduct 
to slaves. Description of the cUmate, and 
of the country in the vicinity of the Cape; 
also of the fruits^ vegetalleSy animals^ and 
other productions. People of various nations 
settled at the Cape. The author meets with 
several Mohammedans. Panegyric on Ge- 
neral Dundas and the British officers. The 
author sells his slave and some other property , 


m order to support his expences. The Danish 
ship brought from False Bay to Table Bay 
— her captain prosecuted for plundering the 
vessel in the river Ganges^ and Ids ship 
therely prevented from proceeding on her 
voyage. The other passengers prosecute the 
captain, and recover half the sum they had 
paid. The author takes his passage for 

x\.FT£R some days, I learned that all the 
passengers, being disgusted with th^"^ bad! 
conduct of the captidn, had resolved not 
to return on board again, but to proceed 
to the Cape Town, and^ wait there the 
arrival of some English vessel, in which 
they might embark for Europe. I was 
therefore under the necessity either of 
abandoning my companions, or of incurring 
a heavy expence by quitting this disgusting 
ship: and having resolved upon the latter, 
I went on shore, and took up my residence 


^ the house where the other passengers, 
were staying. 

Our landlord, who was called Barnet, 
was a very* smooth. speaker, and appeared 
very polite. He said he was by descent 
a Scotchmaui thoi^h bom and bred amongst 
the Dutch. . With this person I agreed for 
my board and lodging, at the rate of five 
rupees .a day. His &mily consisted of his 
wife, two children, and five slaves; and 
notwithstaiiding there were fifteen of us, 
inducybg servants, who lodged in the hous^ 
liiey attended minutely to all our wants, 
and even antieqmted' otu* wishes, without 
any noise, bustle, or confiision. 

Some time previous to omr arrival at 
the Cape, it had been taken possession of 
by the English, . and was garrisoned by 
about 5000. Eurc^^ean soldiers^ under. the 


command of General Dundas (a nephew 
of the celebrated Mr. Dundas, on^ of ifce 
principal Ministers of the British Empire), 
who also acted as Goremor daring the 
absence of Lord Macartney. "Hie tro<^ 
at False Bay were commanded by Captain 
Collins, on whom I waited^ and was re- 
ceived with great attention and politeness. 
He returned my visit on the following day, 
and invited me to dine with him. Vfe 
found a large company assembled, and were 
entertained in a very sumptuous manner. 
Although I then understood English Itat 
imperfectly, yet the marked attendon ot 
Captain and Mrs. Collins and their frtends 
was so flattering, that I never sqpent^ more 
agreeable day in my life. On taking leave, 
they requested me to drink tea widi tfiem 
every evening I was disengaged, during my 
stay at Fake Bay. From the commahden 
oi the ships of wary Captains^ )Liee and 


Gouch^ I also received the greatest attention. 
Hiey invited me twice to entertainments on 
tx)ard^ and. sent their own barges to conveys 
me. Upon entering and leaving the ship^ 
I was salttted by the disehaige of a number 
of {neoes of cannon^ and was treated in 
every reqpect as a person of conse*' 

After a short readeiuse with Mr. Barilet^ 
I expmeneeA.^ very great change in his 
b^iaviour. Our table became daily worse 
supplied^ and his conduct was sometimes 
rude. He "One day came and desired I 
vmkl change my apartment for ^a smadler 
oiie, a^be expected more gu€sts> and could 
put up twoi or three bed» in ^ romn. 
After I had removed n^ luggage to ahodieP5 
be4b»i told the thai room was pre-engdged^ 
and that I must remove te ar^thifd^ in 
which I'foutid a gentlemi^s trunks;, ^h(^ 


was gone to Cape Town, and might pofr* 
sibly return during the night. I was much 
irritated at such conduct, and asked him 
what he meant. He repUed, that he had 
let me have my lodgings too cheap ; and 
that, if I wished to remain there, I mu3t 
pay him ten rupees (<^. 1. 5^.) a day. I 
observed that his behaviour was that ctf a 
blackguard Dutchman, and that I should 
quit his house the next day. I accordingly 
made my preparations for proceeding to 
Gape Town ; and although I left his house 
before sun-rise, he insisted on my paiying 
'him for the. whole of that day. He .also 
diarged very extravagantly for my washing, 
and other matters wherein I had employ^ 
him. But I was still more provoked at 
the behi^viour oi his wife, to whom, on the 
day of my arrival, I had presented a bag 
of fine Bengal rice, worth, at the Cape 
forty or ^fiy rupees : she was ,in . conse- 


quench very polite for three or four days^ 
but afterwards totaUy changed her con« 

On the 2d of July I set out for Cape 
Town^ in a coach drawn by eight horses^ 
HU of which were driven > one man, and 
with such dexterity as I have never mU 
oessed. F^ of the road was throi^h 
water up to the horses* bellies ; in another 
place the wheeLsrsank nearly up to the axle- 
trees in sand ; and although we climbed and 
descended very ste^ mountains^ we were 
sddom out of a gallop. When we ap- 
proached within four or five miles of the 
town^ we found the road broad and even>. 
lined on each side mth hedges ; the coun* 
try was also well cultivated^ and adorned 
by groves and gardens^ with here and there 
windmills and fitrm-houses^ which much 
ornamented the scenery. Ou this toad 

VOL. I. £ 

74 • THE 

the Ea^&dti moA tbe genteel Dutdi 
tafe liie sr^ eiliier <m faondiadk or hi 
carriages^ every day from noon till few 

At the distaace of liiree miles^ 4Im 
town af^iesurs very beaut^ and superb,- 
and mudi de%fals 4he bdielda'. The 
difltanoe from Fake Bi^ to Cape Town is 
a day*s journeys but as there are houses 
for the entertainment of travefiers on die 

road^ we had a oemfortd>le break&st and' 
d&mer at the proper hours. 

• • - ■ 

It was nearly dark when we entered 
the town; «id lodgings having been se- 
cured for me by one of my ship^nates, I 
diove <firee(fy to Mr. Chrk's^the best house 
of that deser^ition m the place. 

Two 4ddes of the town are sikrrowided 

I :;; 



On another side of the town is Table 
Bay ; on the shore of which are erected 
very formidable batteries, sufficient to pre- 
vent any enemy from entering it. Some 
batteries have also been constructed on 
the land side. In short, the fortifications 
of this place were so strong, that when the 
English came to attack the Cape, they 
found it expedient to proceed to False Bay, 
and effect their debarkation at that point : 
they thence proceeded by land, and having 
wth great difficulty clambered over the 
mountains, made their attack on that 
side^ and thus compelled the Hollanders to 

The town is about six miles in circum- 
ference. A few of the houses are built of 
stone, but the generality of them are only 
brick and mortar. The streets are very 
broad and straight, and paved on each side 


with, large bricks or flag stones. Each 
street is also provided: with one or two 
channels for carrying off the water^ so that 
even in mnter there is scarcely any mud or 
dirt to be seen. Each side of the street 
is also planted with a row of trees^ which 
afford an agreeable shade ; and along the 
front of every house is erected a seat of 
masonry, about a yard high, for the inha- 
bitants to sit on and smoke their pipes in 
the summer evenings. This custom, which 
is, I believe, peculiar to the Hollanders^ 
appeared to me excellent. 

The furniture of some of the houses is 
very elt^ant^ consisting of mirrors, pic- 
tures, girandoles, lustres, and a great 
quantity of plate. The walls of the rooms 
were covered with variegated paper, and 
hung with handsome window curtains, some 

cvf^ chintz, others of velvet ; in short, the 

B 3 


^plefidour of tMs town quite obliteitited 
from my tnihd all the magnificence of 
Calcutta^ which I had previously considered 
^ superior to any thing to be found 
between India and Europe* In the sequel 
I ishanged my opinion respecting the Cape ; 
and indeed I may say^ that from my first 
setthig otit on this journey, till my arrival 
in England, I ascended the pinnacle of 
ms^nificence and luxury; the several de- 
grees or stages of wlueh were, CakutUt, 
the Cape, Cork, Dublin, and LcmilMfi ; the 
beauty and grandeur of each city effacing 
that of the former. On my return towards 
India every thing was reversed, the last 
place being always inferior to that I bad 
qaitted. Thus, after a long residence in 
Lotkbn, Paris appeared to me much infe- 
rior ; tot althottg^ the latter contains hiore 
wrperb bniMBngs, it is neither so regofaur, 
kc^t 90 eleim, nor so well l^ted at night 


as the former j nor 4iQ^s U possess so niMiy 
squares or gardens in its vicinily ; in shMt^ 
I thought I had fallen from Paradise into 
Hell; Bift wheb I arrived in Italy^ I was 
made senaUe of the beauty of Paris. The 
cities of Italy rose in my estimation when 
I arrived at C!onstaiitino|^ ; and the latt^ 
18 a perfect Para^iae^ coiftpared to Bagdad^ 
Mousul^ and other towns in the territory of 
the FaiikfiU. fill these places I shall 
describe m^ire partiGularly in ^e course ef 

Nearly in the centre of Cs^e Town b ib 
btfge handsome square^ two miles in cir- 
cumference^ in whichi the taroops are e^xer* 
eised. Two sides; of the squane are inclosed 
iwdtb streets of lo% bouses^ a third ifi 
bouiided by the Fortj, and the fourtb^ faees 
the sea. The Fort is regular^ and mn^ 
resembles that of Calcutta^ but smaller. 

£ 4 


The bazars are well built^ and well supplied 
with every requisite. 

Ha^ng said so much of the place^ I will 
iiow take the liberty of describing the in- 
haUtants. All the European Dutch women 
whom I saw, .were very fat, gross, and 
insipid ; but the girls bom at the Cape are 
well made, .handsome, and sprightly ; they 
are also good natured, but require costly 
presents. Even the married women are 
suspected ; and each of the Engfishmen of 
9nk had his particular lady, whom he visited 
without any intermption from the husband, 
who generally walked out when the admirer 
entered the house. The consequence was, 
that the English spent all the money they 
got; while the Hollanders became rich, 
and more afl9uent than when under thar 
own government* 


The generality of the Dutchmen are low- 
minded and inhospitable^ neither do th^ 
fear the imputation of a bad name^ and are 
more oj^ressive to their slaves than any 
other people in the world. If a slave un- 
derstands any trade^ they permit him to 
work for other people^ but oblige him to 
pay from one to four dollars a day^ accord- 
ing to his abilities^ for such indulgence. 
The daughters of these slaves who are 
handsome they keep for their own use^ but 
the ugly ones are either sold^ or obliged to 
work vnih their fstthers. Should a slave 
perchance save money sufficient to purchase 
his freedom^ they cause him to pay a great 
price for it^ and throw many other obstacles 
in his way. 

I saw a tailor^ who was married^ and 

had four children ; he was then forty years 

of age^ and had^ by great industry aod 

E 5 


oeconomy, purchased the freedom of himself 


and wife ; but the children still continued 
as slaves. One of them, a fine youth, was 
sold to another master, and carried away to 
some distant land : the eldest girl was in 
the service of her master; and the two 
youngest were suffered to remain wtb 
their parents till they should gain sufficient 
strength to be employed. 

As the female slaves are employed in 
maldng the beds, and looking after the 
rooms of the lodgers, they frequently have 
opportunities of getting money ; great part 
of which they are, however, obliged to pay 
to their avancious owners. 

During my stay at the Cape, I suffered 
great inconvenience from the filthiness and 
stench of their privies, which they take no 
pains to keep clean. Neither have they arty 


baths^ cither hot or eold^ in the town; 
^d atdufeicMi is quite unknown to the iac 

Although I was igKnant of the Dutch 
language^ and could not converse with the 
young women, yet in dancing they made 
use oi so many wanton aijs^ and threw sudi 
significant looks towards me^ that I was 
often put to the bludij and obliged to retiie 
to the other side of the loom. A party of 
tbese-girk <N!ice attacked me: one of them^ 
who wjAS the handsomest and most forward, 
pnatehed away my handkerchief^ and offered 
it to another girl of her own age ; upon 
whkh tliey all b^an to lau^ aloud: but 
as the young lady did not seem incliiied 
to {u^cept the handkerchief, I mthdrew it, 
and said I would only part with it to the 
handsomest. As ^s drcumstance was an 
attttsion to a practice among the rich Turks 


of Constantinople^ who throw thdr hand- 
kerchief to the lady with whom they widi 
to pass the night, the laugh was turned 
against my Mr antagonist, who blushed^ and 
retreated to some distance. 

I continued to reside with Mr. Clark 
till the 15th of July, during wluch time I 
formed several acquaintances, and found 
that a number of Mohammedans dwdt at 
the Cape. My landlord in a short time 
proving himself to be a true Dutchman^ by 
the exorbitance of his charges, and variooi 
ikhpositions^ I quarrelled widi him; upon 
which he was very abusive^ and threatened 
to summon me before the court of justice. 
I thereon complained to my ^ ship-mate. 
Captain Williamson; but he, having formed 
an attachment to one of the finales in dx 
house, took my adversar/s part, and insisted 
tipon my payii^ att his demands. He had 


occasaon^ in the s^qud^ to repent his con- 
duet; for the ^rl having been detected^ 
was severely pumshed^ and compelled to 
pay to her oppressive- master all the mon^; 
the captain had given her^ who thereupon 
quitted the house^ and apologized to me for 
his Qonduct. 

In consequence of my dispute with Mr« 
Clark^ I hired lod^ngs in the house of a 
worthy Mussulman, who bdiaved to me 
with the greatest attention and kindness ; 
and as I had constant invitations from the 
En^tish officers^ I passed my time very 
pleasantly^ and lived at a small expence. 

Although it was now winter at the Cape j 
the trees were all in full verdure^ and the 
gardens were rq>lete with flowers of every 
kind: the fruits were also deUdous^ and in 
such variety^ that we found here tiie produce 


of both the torrid and frigid zones^ * At a 
short distance from the town is situated a 
^lebrated garden, called Constantia^ the 
gprapes o£ wfaidn are siqperior to any I ham 
«vef tasted, and from which they maifie an 
exedknt sweet wine, that is much admired^ 
and carried to all parts of the world. 

The markets are well supfdied mth good 
beef, mutton, and goat. The sheep are of 
the large-tailed species, and affi>rd a great 
quantity of grease and tallow. Tkeve^ 
taUea here are also veiy good, and in giwl 
variety; but their wheat and rice are i»* 
different. Fresh butter is widi dfiffieid^ 
procured: and notwithstanding there ap- 
peai'ed a great abundance of erery tliiiig 
ebe, the prices were high. Meat was seres- 
pence halfpenny a posnd; bread thftr- 
pence a pound ; and ^gs thsee-penoe eaflk 
Waishij^g 19 alw very dfiw* 


The horses of the Cape are very strong 
and active^ and under excellent command : 
diey have probably some of the Arab blooiil 
hi them. Here are abb very good molei^ 
irfndi are principally used for carriagea:; 
the tipiaggons are dravm by oscen. Oatrichea 
are fomfid in this part of Africa ; and they 
shewed me a particular species of d(^ 
and cats^ both of which run wild in the 

Besides the Dutch^ there are to be found 
Bt the Cape peo|de of many other nations ; 
and at least seven or eight languages axie 
spoken here. The common people aone 
principally Malays and Negroes. Most of 
these were originally slaves^ who have either 
pftrehased their freedom, or have been 
nutnumitted by their masters. Attioi^ 
ihem I met widi many pious good Mussul- 
mms^ several of whom possessed consider- 


able property. I had the pleasure of 
forming an acquaintance with Shaikb 
Abdulla^ the son of Abd al Aziz^ s^ natiyt) 
i)i Mecca^ who having come to the Cape 
on some commercial adventure, married 
the daughter of one of the Malays, ami 
settled there. He was very civil, introduced 
iQe to all his friends, and anticipated all 
my wishes. 

From Mr.Bomgard, a Dutch gentleman, 
who had resided twenty years in Bengal, 
and had been for some time governor of 
CSiinsura, I e^qierienced much kindness. 
His wife was a very agreeable and clever 
'woman, and spoke seven languages. 

Were I to relate all the civilities I 
received froni General Dundas and die 
other British officers, they would fill a 
volume. I cannot however refrain men- 


tionii^^ the many del^itfiil efomigs I 
jNUBsed at the house of Imdy Anne Bamet, 
who was generally called Ifae Princess of 
die Cape^ and eveiy week gave an enter* 
taininent to all her acquaintances, and 
constantly did me Ihe honour to number 
me among her guests, tody Anne is the 
daughter of an English noUeman, and has 
all the dignified manners of a person of 
quality. At her house I fiequentfy met 
ivith a Mrs. Crawford^ a young Irishwoman, 
who was exceedin^y beautiful, but q>oke 
little^ and was rather reserved ; in short, 
she had' quite the el^ant behaviour of our 
Indian princesses, and completely won my 
heart. These were the only two English 
women of rank whose husbands were at the 
Cbqpe. The rest of the officers were obUged 
to amuse themselves with the Dutch ladies, 
several of whom, in consequence, got well 



Although I lived with the greatest pes* 
sible oeconomy during our long stay at tUs 
place^ I could not have borne the eaqpenee^ 
but for the sale of some articles. Of theses 
the most valuable was a Negro slave^ whose 
manners and disposition had been so mndi 
eomipted on board ship^ that I fetrnd il 
requisite to part with him^ and disposed of 
him for 500 dollars. I also sold a taHsmw 
tad some pieces of muslin for 200 doDarB 
more. By these means I was enabled- to 
Eve without incurring any didits> tilL m 
opportunity o&red of proceeding on oai 

During our stay at the Cape^ the monr 
soon having changed^ Captain NetdtaMor 
was enaUed to bring his ship^ the Christna^ 
from False Bay to TaUe Bay : but imine^ 
£ately on his arrival, he was. accused^ hf 
Mr. Pringle^ the East-India Comfianfs 


i^ent, with having plundered the burnt ship 
in Ae river Gaines; and a prosecution was 
filed against him in the court of justice. 
The &ct was easily proved, and he was 
sentenced to pay ^£".2000 damages. During 
Ae prosecudon^ the ship was laid under 
Mcpiestration; and the crew hariiq^ dispersed 
themselves in various sdtuations. Captain 
Nettleman found it impossible to proceed 
on his voyage. He was however, I believe, 
not sony for the event ; for he shortly after 
married a Dutch lady, and settled at the 
Cape. His passengers thereon prosecuted 
him for the amount of their passage money, 
and compelled him to repay them half the 
sum they had given him. I very impru- 
dently declined joining in the prosecution, 
for two reasons ; in the first place, I was 
afraid of the chicanery of Dutch lawyers ; 
and, secondly. Captain Nettleman assured 
me, that if the cause was decided agunst 


him, he would repay me in proportion to 
the others. This agreement he afterwards 
denied, and I lost my money. Glad, how- 
ever, to get rid of such a wretch, and an 
importunity offering at this time of pro- 
ceeding to England, I engaged a passage, 
for forty guineas, on board the Britannia, 
a South-Sea whaler, bound to London. 



The Author quits the Ckpe, and embarks on 
board the Britannia. Description of the ship^ 
and character of the captain. Discover St, 
Hekna-'-'anchor in the port^'^^scription of 
the island, toum, and fortifications — hospitable 
and friendly conduct of the Governor* Leave 
St. Helena. Pass the island of Ascension — 
some account thereof. Recross the equinoctial 
line. Anecdote related by the captain. Fall 
in with an American and an Hamburgh 
vessel. Again see the polar star — pass a 
fleet of outward-bound Indiamen — pass the 
Canaries and the entrance to the MedUer- 
ranean Sea. Arrive at the mouth of the 
English Channel — contrary wind — obliged to 
bear away for the Irish or St. George*s 
Channel. Fall in with an overset vessel. 
Cold and cUsagreeable weather. The captain 
determines to enter the Cove of Cork. 


On the 29th of September, my friend 
Captain Richardson and I embarked on 
board the Britannia, and were soon under 
weigh. This was one of the vessels em- 
ployed in catching whales^ and was loaded 
with the oil of tliat fish. She had also a 
Letter of Marque^ and was therefore well 
equipped for war ; and had been fortunate 
enough ' to capture a Spanish prize on her 
way out, which sold for a large sum of 
money. The crew consisted of between 
thirty and forty men ; but as thqr were all 
able seamen, and kept under the same 
discipline as on board a ship of war^ the 
duty was performed with great alacritjr, and 
without any noise ot confusion. Although 
our accommodations were rather coniined, 
every thing was so well arranged, and the 
guns, arms, &c. so well secureid, that we 
felt none of the inconveniences which we 
had suffered in the Dane. 


The Britannia siuled very &st; and 
during the voyage we pursued several ships^ 
but did not succeed in making any captures. 
The captain was named Clark : he was an 
caco^yieQt navigator ; and whenever we ap- 
proached any land^ he predicted to an houf 
wjhen we should arrive at it. Soon after 
living tiie Cape, we were agmn favoured by 
liie trade winds^ and iu two days ran 400 

On the morning of the 13th of October 
we discovered 4he Island of St. Helena, and 
at noon east anchor in the port. I soon 
aftfer landed, and was honoured by Governor 
Beooke with an in^tation to dinner. This 
gentleman, having served thirteen years as 
an <»fficer in India, some part of which 
period he resided at the court of the Emr 
peror Shah Aalum, spoke Hindoostany with 
great fluaicy, and conversed mih me a 
long time on Indian politics. 


St. Helena is an island in the midst' of 
the "Great Western Ocean^ situated maujf 
hundred miles from any other land^ in tile 
inxteenth degree of south latitude^ and is 
about tvf^enty-eight miles in circumferaooe. 
The cliffs from the sea appear black and 
burnt up ; but^ in the interior^ some of the 
valleys are clothed with delightful verdure : 
the hills 'are also adorned with a variety of 
beauti&l shrubs^ and every spot fit for 
culture is laid out in picturesque gardens. 
The inhabitants have with great labour 
formed zigzag roads up the hills^ fit for 
two horses to ride abreast ; but on account 
of the steepness of the ascent^ carriages are 
seldom made use of. The most . elevated 
of the mountains is said to be aboUt a mile 
high ; from some of the crevices in which a 
smoke and strong smell of suljrfiur are^ 
often emitted. There are onjy two con- 
siderable streams of water in the island.; 


and as the v^etation is. thereftNre .«»fir eljr 
dependent on the rain/ it often hiqipens, 
that, from a ivant of moisture^ the grass for 
the ea(;tle aiid the produce of die gardens 
are ibstroyed^ which causes much distress to 
the ii^iabitants. In iavourable seasons, the 
quanti^ of apples and other fruits pro- 
duced in some of the gardens is astonishing. 
A garden belonging to an officer yielded in 
ene year a jdear profit of ^.) 250. As this 
island does not prpduce any grain^ it is 
principally supplied with flour and othei> 
articles of food from Europe. Beef, mutton, 
and poultry, are procurable, but at wery high 
piioes. Milk is not in plenty, but so rich, 
^t it produces cream twice. Here ycm 
meet with the trees and fruits both of 
Europe and Asia, and perhaps some of the 
most rMiantic spots in the world* - Whilst 
walking in Colonel Robertson's garden with 
his beaulifrd daughters, the contrast between 

VOL. I. F 


my then situation^ and the confined cabin 
of a ship^ made me foncy^ for some mo-, 
ments^ that I had suddenly been transported 
into Pfeuradise.* But the most surprising 
thing about this island is^ that thunder and 
lightning are never heard nor seen. 

The only town on the island is situated 
in a narrow valley, which seems to have 
been formed by torrents from the moun- 
tains: this valley is about two miles in 
lengthy and from twenty to a hundred yards 
in breadth. The town was founded by the 
English, about forty years after they had 
obtuned settlements in IncGa. It contains 
9ome good bmldings formed of stone, but 
the roofe of the houses are thatched or tiled. 
Here are several good shops, in which both 
Indian and European commodities are soldi 
and also a tavern and coffee-house. In the 

* Mohammed's Paradise is of course meant. 


broadest part of the valley there is a small 
square^ used as a parade for the troops : 
towards the sea there are several veiy heavy 
batteries erected ; and on the tops of two 
of the hills are two strong forts, which 
could with ease sink any enemy's ship that 
should venture to anchor in the Roads. 
Some little way in the interior there is a 
remarkable stroi^ tower, built entirely of 
stone, the walls of which are fifteen feet 
thick. The engineer told me it was im- 
pregnable ; that it was as solid as the rock 
on which it is built ; and that he hoped it 
would be as durable. 

The only place at which ships can 
anchor is opposite the town : and the water 
is here so deep, that they lie within a 
hundred yards of the shore. * 

I was told, that when the English first 



sietded here, the island sras overrun by wild 
goat8 ; and that these animals^ in hounding 
from rock to rock^ frequei^y thi:ew down 
large stones^ which IftUing on the rooCs of 
the houses built under, the precipice, oc- 
casioned much damage ;^that a reward was 
in consequence set upon their heads ; . and 
every person who brought the sk^i of one 
of them to a particular office^ received a 
sum of money for it ; by which means the 
goats were gradually extirpated^ 

! The lower class of people here are of 
a tawny colour, being a mixture of Euro- 
pean, Indian, and Negro extraction. Of 
the two latter denominations there are still 
a number of slaves on the island. 

Governor Brooke^ whose hospitality and 
liberality were extended to every person 
who visited the island^ .havii^ r^uested 


me to live with. hiHl- during my stay, 
supplied me with a^horSe, and directed his 
son to attend me into the country ; by 
which means I visited the Govemor*s and 
Deputy Governor's gardens, arid every other 
place worth seeing. When vte were about 
£o embark, he sent on board a lai^e stock 
of fruit and vegetables for niy use. 

» r 

On the evening of the ISth^, after 
having dined with the worthy Governor; 
we repaired on board. The anchor wais 
immediately weighed, and in a short time 
we quitted this romantic scene. 


On the 20th we passed by the Island 
of Ascension, at the distance of only two 

miles. This island, like St. Heleiia, is also 

• f 

a rock, situated in the great Weisfterh 

Ocean, in the eighth degree of south lati- 

tude ; but as it does not {Possess any springs 



of fresh water, it is not a place of rendezvous 
for ships ; they however often stop here to 
catch turtle, for the number and goodness 
of which this place is celebrated. These 
animals come on shore during the night to 
deposit their eggs, and the people employed 
to catch them then turn them on their 
backs, and carry them off at their leisure 
during the day. A few goats are also to 
be seen here, which, probably find rain water 
deposited in the cavities of the rocks, or ia 
some stagnant pools, which enables them to 
subsist. On this day we again had the sun 
vertical ; and although we were only eight de- 
grees from the equinoctial line^ we found the 
necessity of putting on our warm clothing. 

On the 25th we re-crossed the line, the 
weather still continuing uncommonly cold. 
In this latitude we caught great numbers of 
fish : we were also followed by a number of 


birds resembling swallows. It is said that 
these birds never go totheland^ but form nests 
of weeds and the scum of the sea^ which 
constantly float on the water^ in which they 
lay their eggs and bring forth their young ; 
but this story appears very improbable* 

I was however told a circumstance 
which is more extraordinary than the above. 
Captain Clark^ Who was not addicted to 
fiction^ related to me^ that once he went on 
Ishore on the coast of Africa^ with two 
boats^ to procure water forthe ship ; that 
while he was there^ nearly 300 animals^ of 
a size between a horse and an ass^ which 
they, call sea-horses (probably seals) came 
out of the sea^ and went above a mile on 
land^ leaving very deep impressions of their 
feet in the sand. When they were return- 
ing, he (the captain) fired his musket at, 

and killed one of them; that the others, 

F 4 


in order to revei^ the slaughter of their 
et>mpanion> mstantly pursued him; and 
that he and some of his companions only 
escaped by hiding themselves among the 
rocks.v Some of the party got on board 
one of the boats^ and pushed off to the 
ship; but the other boat was broken to 
pieces by the enraged animals. 

On the^ 26th^ at noon^ we saw a ship at 
a distance, which the captain believing to 
be a French vessel, cleared his own for 
action. As we were then* in the track 
between Europe and America, and most of 
die kings of Europe were at war with each 
other, these latitudes are considered to be 
more replete with danger than any other 
p^rt of the 4)cean ; it being the practice of 
Europe, that ^whenever the ships of two 
enemies meet at sea, the most powerful 
parries his adversary with him into one of 


his own ports^ and there selte bol^ shipitud 
cargo for his own ^vantage. : 

• • • . 

After a run of some houis^ we dii^Dvered 
that it was an American ship ; and although 
the English were not at war with that 
nation^ Captain dark 6rdered the niaster 
to bring to, and to cotne on boftrd with his 
papers. The poor fellow, being much 
fiightened, \*ame on board, and brought 
with him his Journal and certificates. 
During iJie whole of the day he was kept as 
a prisoner, but in the evening obtained' 
liberty to proceed on his voyage. 

On the following day we fell in with 
another vessel, from Hamburgh, laden with 
salt provisions for the Island of Mauritius. 
"Hiis was a fine large three-masted ship ; 
bat the captain, upon being ordered to stop, 

iminndiately complied, and came on board* 

p 5 


with his : papers : he also brought us ft 
present of some fresh cheeses, which were 
very acceptable; and he was permitted 
shortly to dq>ack. 

On the night of the 27th> being then in 
the fifth degree of north latitude, we had again 
the pleasure of beholding the constellations 
Ursa Major and Minor, and the polar star. 
Al>out this time we had a great ded of 
rain ; and the captain assured me that he 
hadl constantly experienced wet weather in 
these latitudes. 

On the 7th of November we a third 
time entered the r^on of the trade winds, 
for these also prevail between the tenth and 
twenty-seventh d^ees of north latitude ; 
which carried us on with such rapidity, 
that sometimes the ship went tea miles in 
the hour ; the waves were in comiequeiice 


much agitated^ and the sea ran nearly as 
high as off the Cape ; but, as the ship was 
well secured and well managed, we did not 
suffer those inconveniences which had been 
experienced on board the Dane. 

On the nth we passed within a mile 
of six English Indiamen, under convoy of 
a ship of war. We shewed our colours tp 
each other, and' passed on. During this 
part of the voyage we also passed by the 
islands, called, by the English, The West 
Indies; but did not see any of them, as 
they Ue far west of the track we pursued. 

On the 14th we were opposite the Ca- 
naries, or Fortunate Isles, whence the 
Mohammedans commence their lon^tude. 
These islands are in the thirty-third degree 
of north latitude : we however passed &r 
to the westward of them. We shortly, after 


pas^ -thfe eftttahte of the Mediterra- 
ncttir Sea, which runs east as fiir as 

■ I , 

From the Ipth to the 27th wie had con- 
trary winds, and the sea ran very high ; but we 
jrtfffered tto other inconvenience than the 
want of food and sleep. On the 29th we 
Wefe' opposite the entrance of the chilnnel 
which tuns betwieen England and France, but 
#hidi takes its name from the former ; and 
expected* to have cast anchor in two days 
616 Pttttsmouth, one of the most celebrated 
ports of England; but a strong easterly 
wind continuing to blow right against us, 
#e ^vere unable to enter it, and were obliged 
t6 bear aivay for the coast of Ireland. 

It becomes in this place ' requisite to 
^lain (to my countrymen) the signifi- 
Mtlbn. df sseveral English terms, in order 


that they may more fully comprehend mjr 
meaning. . ^ 

A Channel means a narrow part of th« 
sea^ confined between two lands^ but open 
at both ends. 

A Bay extends &r into the land^ is of 
a circular form^ and open only on one sidd. 

A Sea (sometimes called a Gulf) is a 
large extent of the ocean^ but nearly sur- 
rounded • by land ; as the MecBterranean 
Sea^ the Gulf of Persia^ the Red Sea^ &o. 

As the English Channel runs nearly 
east and west^ it is impossible to enter it 
if the wind blows from the former quarter : 
when therefore a ship arrives at this place, 
if the wind be easterly, she is obliged to 
beat about till it changes. This wfts pre- 
cisely our situation ; and for two days we 
conitinlted to tack from one side to the 
t>lJia^, vt^otrt gaining' any advantage. 


Thus situated^ and our captain seeing no 
prospect of a changie of wind^ and being 
also apprehensive of falling in with some 
pf the French cruizers^ resolved to go into 
the channel which runs between Ireland 
and England, called St. George's Channel, 
as being a much more safe place, and out 
of the track of the enemy. 

In consequence of this determination, 
we changed our course, and during the day 
fell in with a two-masted vessel, which had 
overset in the l^te gale, and been abandoned 
fay her crew; but which, being laden with 
buoyant articles, floated on the water like 
a half-drowned animaL Captain Clark 
ordered out his boat, and went on board 
her; and with the assistance of his men, 
who were good divers, he got out several 
chests of excellent wine^ and a quantity pf 
4eUeious fruits and sweetmeats. As we 


were now near the land^ and the weather 
was excessively cold, we were permitted to 
have a fire in the cabin, ^ over which we 
enjoyed these good things ; and were thus 
in some measure compensated for the want 
of a favourable wind, though at the expence 
of our fellow-creatures, who had lost or 
rather abandoned their property. 

After cruizing for several days in the 
Irish Channel, and the wind still continuing 
adverse, the captain resolved, instead of 
wasting his time in contending with the 
elements, to go into the Cove of Cork, and 
pass some days there. 

112 tK& TKAXKLS Of 


The skip enters the Cove, and casts anhccr. 

Description of the lay. The author lands at 

the loum, and is Hospitably treated — visits the 

city of Cork, which he descrHes^^etum^ to 

the ship, and determines on visiting Lord 

ComwalUs at DabUn- — quits the ship, and 

sets out for Cork, where he visits Gaptam 

Baker. Description of that gentleman's hoAse 

and family. The author sets out for Duhlim 
— account of his journey. . 

V^N the 6th of December we had « view 
of the land in the vicinity of the Cove of 
Cork: it consisted of a range of hills^ 
approaching the sea with a gentle slope^ 
and divided by inclosures into numerous 
fields. We soon after entered the mouth 
of the Cove^ between two forts^ which have 


been erected to prevent the ships of an 
enemy from' entering the harbour. After 
proceeding some distance^ we came to 
another fort^ built with stone^ upon a rock 
in the middle of the bay, which is thereby 
divided into two channels. Having passed 
the fort^ we in a short time came opposite 
die town of Cove, and east anchor. 

We feuiid here riot less than forty or 
fiii^ Vessels of - difierent sizes, three of 
which Were? shipa of war. The bay resem- 
bles a round basiriy isixteen miles in 
circumference. On its eastern shore is 
situated the town, which is built in the 
form of a crescent, and defended at each 
end by small forts. On one side of the 
bay, a lai^ river, resembling the Ganges> 
disembogues itself: this river extends a 
great way inland, an4 passes by die city 
of Cork. TTie circular form of this ex* 


tensive sheet of water, the verdure of the 
hills, the comfortable appearance of the 
town on one side, and the number of 
elegant houses and romantic cottages on 
the other, with the formidable aspect of 
the forts, and so many large ships lying 
securely in the harbour, conveyed to my 
mind such sensations as I had never before 
experienced : and although, in the course 
of my travels, I had an opportunity of 
seeing thie Bay of Genoa, and the Straits 
of Constantinople, I do not think either of 
them is to be compared with this. 

In the afternoon we landed at the 
town, but found that its interior did not 
correspond with its exterior appearance. 
It does not contain any handsome build^ 
ings, and is, in ^fact,' merely the anchoring 
place for ships engaged in the commerce 
of the city of Cork. It consists only of 


one street^ little more than half a mile 
long : in the shops, however, were abund- 
ance of apples, pears, and grapes; also 
a variety of dried fruits. Having satisfied 
our curiosity, we went to the post-ofiice, 
to despatch our letters. The mistress of 
the house being of a hospitable disposition^ 
insisted upon our staying to dinner, and, 
assisted by her sons and daughters, waited 
upon us at table. Our meal consisted of 
fish^ beef, butter, potatoes and other vege- 
tables, all of so excellent a quality, that 
in my whole life I never tasted any equal 
to them. Cork is celebrated for all these 
articles ; and ships are sent here, aU the 
way from London, to procure them fi>r 
that market. Wlien we were about %> 
return to our ship, we witbed u> ^ >>r 
our dinner, as is the toMm. ja ?jim^ 
but our hostess waaid orx «u;epci Jtrhiniy, 
and strong^ adnwi :ia z.\ ^gm^ vw 4im- 


in the morning, and proceed to the city, 
which she assured us was well worth seeing. 
We agreed, and early next day went to 
her house. She furnished us with horses ; 
and ordered her son, a fine youth of fifteen 
years of age, to accompany us. The 
conduct and appearance of this amiable 
woman astonished me : she had been the 
mother of twenty-one children, eighteen of 
whom were then living, and most of them 
present in the house; notwithstanding 
which she had not the appearance of old 
age, and I should not have supposed her 
more than thirty. 

After travelling about three miles, we 
came to the bank of the river (Lee), in 
which we found a number of small ships at 
anchor. At this place there is a good 
ferry ; and our horses being very quiet, we 
easily got them into the boat, and in a 


short ifime crossed over. From hence to 
the dty was nine miles^ the whole of which 
extent is highly cultivated^ and adorned with 
country^iouses^ groves^ gardens^ &c. 

We arrived at the city about noon^ and 
put i:4[>.at an excellent hotd^ the apartments 
of which we found elegant^ and the servants 
attentive. After a short time we walked 
out to see the town ; but it being the 
viinter season^ and the streets very dirty i 
we did not derive so much satisfaction < as 
we otherwise should* The part of the 
town we visited consists of houses built of 
brick and mortar^ very regular, and four 
stories high, witii handsome doors and 
glazed windows, and fitted up in the inter 
rior with great elegance. The shops were 
handsome, and filled mth every requisite, 
either for use or luxury ; but a& this city 
has been ^ected for the puiposes joi com* 


merce^ more pains have been taken ta 
&cilitate the importation and exportation 
of goods^ than to preserve unifonnity 
and regularity : it has therefore no extensive 
^uares^ and is intersected by canals lined 
with stone, by which vessels can either 
approach the warehouses of the merchants, 
or may be hauled into dock, to be repidred. 
Over these canals are thrown draw-bridges, 
which can be opened and shut at pleasure ; 
but, owing to the stagnant water, and the 
filth which is thrown into them, disagree* 
able smells frequently arise, which are not 
only nauseous, but must be unwholesome: 
The situation of the city is also so low, 
that you scarcely discover it till you come 
close to it. 

Having made a hearty dinner at the 
hotel, and the^ captaui being in expectation 
of a change of wind, we deemed it im-* 


prudent to remain any longer : " we there- 
fore mounted our horses^ and returned 
by the same road we came, to the Cove, and 
slept on board our ship. 

During my visit to Cork, I learned that 
Lord Cornwallis (late Governor of India)^ 
who was the representative of the King in 
this island, having quelled the rebellion 
which had disturbed this country for several 
years, was settled in Dublin. As this city 
was only three days' journey from Cork, 
and it had always been my intention, after 
seeing England, to pay my rpspects to his 
lordship, it now occurred to me, that it 
would be better, as chance had thrown me 
m his vicinity, to anticipate my intentions*, 
and to take this opportunity of waiting on 
bim. I was further induced to this deter- 
mination by the beauty of the country, and 
from having learnt that two ships had lately 

120 TUB T|UVB}4 W. 

r . 

been .lost in the English Channel. I tfaieffe* 
fore resolved to quit the ship at this place, 
and^ after first visiting Dublin^ proceed 
thence to London. Having communicated 
my intentions to my friend. Captain Rich- 
ardson, he resolved to acccompai^ the: 
we therefore left our heavy luggage ana 
servants on board the ship, and, haiving 
landed with a small trunk of clothes, again 

set out for Cork. This time we proceeded 
by water, in an open boat, and took* up 
our lodgings at the hotel where we had 
formerly dined. 

On the day after our arrival, we 
were agreeably surprised by a visit from 
Captain Baker, an old friend of Captain 
Hichardson, and a gentleman mth whom 
I had formed an acquaintance in Rohilcjund, 
during the war with Ghoolam Mohammed 
KJjfan. He had heard of our arrival, and 


t^me to see us. After the usual inquiries 
respecting our health, &c. he insisted that 
we should accompany him to his house, 
which was situated a few miles in the 
country; to which we agreed, and were, 
most hospitably entertained. I was deir 
lighted with the beauty of his park and 
gardens, and the regularity and good 
arrangement of all his apartments and 
offices. I was particularly pleased with his 
cook-room, it being the first regular kitchen 
I had seen : the dressers for holding china, 
the racks for depositing the dishes after 
thqr were waslted, the pipes of cold and 
boilers of hot water, which, merely by 
turning a cock, were supplied in any quan- 
tity tiiat could be required, with the machi-* 
neiy for roasting meat, which was turned 
by smoke, all excited my admiration. At 
Cove I saw a spit for roasting meat turned 
by a dog. The poor animal was put Jinto 

VOL. I. o 


a hollow wheel, and, being impatient at 
his confinement, endeavoured to clamber 
up the wheel: by this exertion he gave 
the machine a rotatory motion, which was 
communicated by a chain to the spit, and 
thus regularly turned every part of the meat 
towards the fire. I was told that the dog 
had been thus employed, for two or three 
hours every day, for fifteen years. 

Captain Baker informed tne that he 
had purchased this estate, which was situ- 
ated on the bank of the river, and only 
four miles fi-om Cork, for* 20,000 rupees 
(^.2,500). Part of it was arable land, 
some of it meadow, and the rest, exci^' 
the garden, was laid out in pasture for ^eep 
and cows. He told me that it supplied 
him with more com, straw, and haj^i than 
he could use, also with abundance of 
milk, fi^iit, potatoeis, and other vegetables ; 


that he reared his own sheep and poultiy;> 
and was only obliged to go to market for 
beef^ groceries^ and wine: in -short, he lived 
on this little estate with more comfort and 
plenty than an English gentleman toukl 
in India upon an annual income of a lac 
of rupees (.9^.125500). » 

r ■■ 

This gentleman's family consisted^ in 
all, of twelve persons, two of whom were 
his nieces. One of these ladies was w^tty^ 
and agreeable; the other handsome, but 
reserved. Several of the young men of 
Cork had made them offers of marriage ; 
but they were so impressed vnth their o'wn 
powerful attractions, that they were difficult 
to please, and would not yield their liberty 
to any of their admirers. These ladies, 
during dinner, honoured me with the most 
marked attention ; and as I had never be- 
fore experienced so much courtesy from 

G 2 


beauties^ I was lost in admiration. After 
dinner these angels made tea for us ; and 
one of them having asked me if it was sweet 
enough^ I replied^ that, having been made 
by such hands, it could not but be sweet. 
On hearing this, all the company laughed, 
and my fiur one blushed like a rose of 

Another remarkable person in this fa- 
mily was named Deen Mohammed*. He 
was a native of Moorshedabad in Bengal, 
and had been brou^t up from his cluldhood 
by an .elder brother of Captain Baker's, 
who, on his return to Europe, brought this 
lad with him, and sent him to school in 
Cork, to learn to read and write English. 
At the school he became acqiudnted with i^ 

* This person Utel3r kept the Hookah Clabf-Home 
in Geoiig^ Street^ Manchester Square. 


^.ii.« *• >- 1 i 

pretty girl^ the daughter of 
parents^ and persuaded her to dope widi 
him. They went to another town^ where 
they were married^ and thai returned to 
Cork. They had several fine ehikfaren; 
and he has pubUshed a book, giving some 
account of himself, and of the customs of 

On the 8th of December, having pre- 
viously engaged places for Dublin, at the 
rate of three guineas each, we set out in 
the mail coach. As this carriage has the 
privilege of conveying the letters from the 
post-office, and the roads were not yet 
quite secure, we were escorted by three 
dragoons, who were r^ularly relieved when- 
ever we stopped to change horses. For 
the above reason we also stopped during 
the night. On this road we found ample 

supplies of every thing requisite. We 



breakfasted the first df^r at a small newly- 
built town^ called Fermoy^ aad dined and 
slept at Clonmetl. The people of the inns^ 
on hearing the sound of the coachman*s 
horn^ had eyery thing prepared, so that 
there was never the smnallest delay. We 
however could net either eat or sleep com- 
fortably for the hurry of the coachman^ 
who threatened, if we were not ready on 
the blowing of his horn, diat he would 
leave us behind ; in which case we should 
not only have lost our passage, but pro- 
bably oiu* luggage; and at all events have 
been separated from our companions. The 
second day we breakfiasted at Kilkenny: 
this city is celebrated throughout Ireland 
for the purity of its air, the fineness of its 
water, the healthiness of its situation, and 
the beauty and urbanity of its inhabitants. 
I was so ddighted with the transient view 
I had ol itji that I would not sit down to 


breakfast^ but> having taken a piece of brea4 
in my hand^ walked to the river : thb I 
found came rolling down a verdant hill at 
some distance^ but was in its progress 
interrupted by a &11^ which added much tp 
the beauty of the scenery. On the oppo^te 
side of the river^ the ground was laid out i|i 
gardens and orchards, resembling a terife^- 
trial paradise ; in shorty I am at a loss for 
words to express the delight I felt on be- 
holding this charnodng place. During tb^ 
ai^ty we slept at the town of Carlow, /Mfl 
on the foUowbg eveninK eptered !DuUiii» i 

-r ■ 

This three days* journey was throiig|i 
a hill^ .4M)untry, sa that we were constantly 
ascendii^ and descending; we did nrit 
howeveiR nrart with any very steep moun- 
tains. :.:!rhe villages in this couatiy much 
resen^ik those of India* The roofs 6£ die 

houses a^e thatched with straw, and bpuad 



down with osiers ; but in some instances 
they are covered viith sods^ which have the 
grass growing out of them a span high. 
Few villages contain more than a dozen 
houses. The poverty of the peasants^ or 
common people^ in this country^ is such^ 
that the peasants of India are rich when 
compared to them. This poverty arises 
from two causes ; first, the high price of 
proviiSions ; and, secondly, the quantity of 
clothes and fuel requisite to keep them 
warm in so cold a climate* Notwithstand^ 
ing the sharp stones over which th^ ase 
obliged to travel, and the excessive cold of 
tbe climate, they never wear a shoe, but 
during the whole year go about with bare 
legs and bare arms; in consequence of 
which, these parts of them are as red as 
ibcr feet of a Hindoo woman who has been 
embellishing hersdf with Mendee (the 
leave« of the Sph^eramhrn Indicus). 


I was informed^ that many of these 
people never taste meat during their tives^ 
but subsist entirely upon potatoes ; and 
that^ in the fitml-houses^ the goats^ pigs^ 
dogs^ meh^ women^ and children^ lie all 
together. Whilst on our journey^ the boys 
frequently ran for miles with the coach^ in 
hopes of obtaining a piece of bread. 

Notmthstanding the poverty of the 
peasants^ the country isi well cultivated^ and 
very fertile ; it produces gteat quantities 
of wheat, barley, peas, turnips, and, above 
all, potatoes. Rice, both of Bengal and 
America, is procurable every where, though 
at a high price. Wherever I dined, a plate 
of this grain was always boiled, and brought 
to table for my exclusive use ; my host and 
his other guests contenting themselves with 
bread and vegetables. The horses and 
cows are fed during winter, while the 


130 'fM TftAVELS 01^ 

ground is covered with snow, on dry grass 
and grain, and the sheep on turnips. 

Here is found a kind ol earth, called 
Thfff which is unfit for tillage, but makes 
tolerable fuel : it is howeyer not equal to 
tfee other kind of fuel used in these coun- 
tries, called Coaly which is a* species of 
black stone, dug out of mines, and affords 
a great heat*. Turf is nevertheless better 
than the composition of cow dung, used by 
the poor in India. 

• In a Persian work entitled the *' Wonders of 
the Creation^** a long description is given of Coal^ 
but it is not generally known in India^ although it is 
to be found in the Ramghur Hills, 



The Author arrives at Dulling and hires lodgings. 
Description of the city, and of the interior 
of the houses. Lighting of the streets at 
night. Squares. Infatuation of Europeans 
respecting Statues. Account of Phoenix Park 
'^^the Light'kouse and Pier^^the river^ and 
cQ9ials. Description of the CoUege-^Par^ 
liament House — Custom House, and Exchange 
-^Churches — Barracks, and Hospitals. The 
Author visits the Theatre — his account of 
an Harlequin entertainment, and other public 

U PON our arrival in Dublin^ we foiwd the 
inn^ at which the coach stopped^ 9^^ &dl • 
we were therefore ob%ed to go to* an hotel 
frequented only by lords and dukes^ and 
where, of course, the charges were very high. 
But, by the advice of a geotlemaa who 


came in the coach with us from Cork^ 
I went next day and hired a lodging in 
English Street^ near the College^ at the 
house of a Mrs. Ball^ a widow lady of an 
amiable disposition^ who had several very 
fine children^ In this country it is not 
customary to take lod^ngs by the months 
but only by the week : I therefore engaged 
two rooms, at a guinea a week. I always 
breakfasted at home, the servants of the 
house purchasing for me excellent tea, 
sugar, bread, and butter. 


During the first week of my residence 
in Dublin, I daily accompanied Captain 
Richardson to some of the eoffee-houses, 
where we dined at about five shillings ex- 
pence ; but in a short time I had so many 
invitations, that I was seldom disengaged. 
Every gentleman who wished to invite me 
to his house^ first called, and then sent a 


note^ to request I would dine with him on 
such a ddy. Sometimes they brought the 
note with them^ and^ if I happened to b6 
absent from home^ left their names written 
on a card^ together with the invitation. 

Captain Richardson^ having paid his re- 
spects to the Lord Lieutenant^ and seen 
every thing he deemed worthy of observa^ 
tion in Dublin^ determined to proceed iitv^ 
mediately to London: but^ as I had no 
particular object in view^ and was highly 
gratified by the attention and hospitality of 
the Irish^ I resolved to continue some time 
loi^r in this country^ even at the risk of 
parting with my friend^ and trusting myself 
entirely among strangers. Of this^ how- 
ever, I had no cause to repent; for my 
acquaintances, finding that after the depar- 
ture of Captain Richardson I was left with- 
out a companion, redoubled their attentions 


to me: aiid I found, that by not having 
any person to interpret for me^ I made 
much more progress in acquiring the 
English language. 

As my principal object in undertaking 
the journey to ' Dublin was to pay my re- 
Bf^ati io Marquis Cornwallis, the second 
day after my arrival I sent my compliments 
to his lordship, and, if agreeable, I would 
wait upon him : in reply to which, I received 
a polite message from his lordship^ expres- 
sive of hS^ liappiness at my safe arrival, and 
desiring to see me at a certain hour on the 
following day. I^accordingly waited upon his 
lordship, by whom I was most graciously 
received. He directed bis secretary to ptOr 
vide me with whatever I re<|uirQd, and 
depute some person to i^ew ,me all the 
curiosities of the place. He further r^ 
quested that I would fevour him £r«^u^t]y 


with my company at the Castle. EKiring 
my stay in Dublin^ I paid my respects to 
his lordship every week^ and was each time 
honoured with fresh prooCi of his Idnclness 
and friendship. 

I shall here endeavour to give my Readers 
some description of tUs city^ certainly the 
most magnificent I had hitherto seen. 

Dublin is the capital of Ireland : it is 
situated within a fiew miles of the sea^ and 
is about twelve miles in circumference. 
Many of the houses are buik oi stoue, and 
do not appear as if any mortar was used in 
thdur construction, the stones fitting so 
exactly into each other. The generality 
of the houses are, however, built of hnxk 
and mortar, neatly laid together : the bricks 
are of a large size, and the mortar appears 
as a wlute border round their edges. AU 


the houses in a street are of the salUe 
height^ which gives to uniformity of ap- 
pearance that is very pleasing: in die 
inside they are generally pauited white> or 
of different colours^ and have all glazed 
windows. Most of them consist of four 
stories^ one of which is under ground ; in 
this they have apartments fitted up for 
cooking, washing, and keeping coals, wine, 
&c. The ground floor is appropriated to 
shops or offices, and eating rooitis. The 
next story is the most el^antly ornamented, 
and is used for the reception oj[ company : 
the one above that is divided into bed rooins, 
for the master and mistress, or their visi- 
tors : and the upper story of all, the vnn- 
dows of which rise above the roof of the 
house, and where the ceilings are low, is 
allotted as sleeping apartments for the 
servants. The roofe of the houses are 
covered with thin blue stones, which are 


closely fitted^ and nailed on narrow slips 
of boards and are much handsomer and 
more durable than tiles. 

The apartments are in general fitted up 
with great elegance. The window curtains 
are either of beautiful chintz^ silk^ or velvet. 
The rest of the furniture consists of mirrors^ 
girandoles^ pictures^ mahogany tables^ chairs^ 
couches^ &c. In every apartment there is 
a place for a fire^ the machine for holding 
which is composed of steel and brass^ very 
highly polished^ and ornamented. The 
front of the fire-place is adorned by marble 
slabs^ one of which is. laid horizontally^ 
upon which^ in the summer, they place 
bouquets of flowers^ and, in the winter, 
various ornaments of china, spars, &c. 
Nothing in their houses attracted my ad- 
miration so much as what I have just 
de^cribed^ utility and ornament being therein 


happily blended. The walls of the roouK 
are covered with variegated paper, with 
which the pattern of the carpets in general 
correspond. The entrance to the house 
is by a door on the eating floor, on which 
the number of the house and the namie of 
the master are either painted, or engraved 
on a brass plate. On every door thel« » 
fixed a knocker, by striking of winch yon 
give notice to the servants, when you wisl^ 
to enter ; but in some houses they- bv^t 
beUs fixed for this purpose! In the room 
below stairs, where the servioits asse&Aile^ 
there are several bells fixed, which commu- 
nicate by wires mih the different ^pait^ 
ments ; and being all numbered, upon t^ 
ringing of any bell the servants immediatd^ 
know where their presence is required* 


The streets of this ci^ are : in geii€ial 
mde, and are divided into, three portioM': 


tfae two sides, ^iiich are flagged, are appro* 
priated to foot passengers ; and the middle 
part, which is paved mth stones, is used 
for horses and carriages. In front of the 
houses of noblemen and gentlemen there 
18 an iron railing which projects some 
yards into the street, by which light and air 
are admitted into the lower floor, and heavy 
OT' dirty articles can be taken out or in 
throu^ a door in the ntiling, without 
defiUng the house. 

Many aS the best streets are entirely 
occupied by shops : these have all large 
grazed windows^ in which the articles are 

exhibited to attract purchasers. They^ve 
ilso over the doors a plank painted black, 
on which is inscribed, in gold letters, the 
name and profession of the owner. These 
shops are at night brilliantly lighted up, 
and have a handsome effect. In them is 


to be found whatever is curious or valuable 
in the world. My attention was particularly 
attracted by the jewellers* and milliiien' 
repositories; nor were the fruiterers or 
pastrycooks* shops without thdr attractions. 
I generally spent an hour between bredk&st 
and dinner in some one of these places. 

At nighty both sides of the street aie 
lighted up^ by lamps suspended in glass vaseB 
at the height of ten or twelve feet from the 
ground ; which^ with the addition of the nu- 
merous candles in the shop windows^ render 
it as light as day. One of the streets thus 
fitted up, in which were several chemists* 
sho^fe containing glass vases filled with 
different coloured liquids, put me in mind 
of the hnmn Bdreh (Mausoleum) at Luck* 
now, when illuminated, during the reign of 
the late Nabob Assuf ad Dowleh* This 
being the first town I had seen well lighted 


Ut nighty it impressed me with a great idea 
of its grandeur^ nor did it afterwards suffer 
in my estimation with a comparison with 

The crowd of people who are con- 
stantly walking the streets is astonishing; 
and they, have acquired such dexterity by 
habit, that they never run agwist.each 
other. I could not help admiring some 
girls^ who, either from the coldness of the 
' weather or their natural high flow of 
firsts, disdained to walk deliberately, but 
bounded through the crowd, without touch*, 
ing any one, as if they had been going 
4own a dance. 

In this, and all the other cities of 
Europe^ there are so many carriages of 
difierent kinds, that I may safely aver, from 
the day I arrived in DubUilf till I quitted 


Paris, the sound of coach wheels was n^ya: 
out of my ears. There are seven hundred 
registered coaches here^ which never go 
out of the town, but merely carry passengers 
from one street to another. Besides these^ 
every nobleman and gentleman of fortune 
keeps his own carriage, some of which are 
drawn by two horses, others by four or six. 
The horses are of a large breed peculiar 
to these kingdoms ; and they are used for 
all lands of work, even for plougfaiug the 
ground. The only use made of bullocks 
in this country is to eat them. The sheep 
her« have not large tdls, but are very 
delicious food. The fowls are ahro very 
fine, of the size of geese, and ^ve very 
large eggs. 


In this city there are several extensive 
and beautiful squa]:es : in the centre of each 
k generally a fountain^ over which ^ cupola 


is erecMd^ to shelter it from the sun : the 
water issues from the heads of lions^ or 
some other animal^ carved in stone ; but^ 
to prevent the water being wasted^ every 
pipe has a screw to it, which, when the 
person has filled his buckets, he turns, and 
the water ceases to flow. In some of the 
squares there is a stone platform erected, 
on which is placed the equestrian statue 
of one of their kii^s ; and when seen from 
a distance, it appears as if the horse was 
curvetting in the air. These fountains 
and statues have an iron railing round 
them ; and at night, lamps are aifl&xed 
thereto, to prevent people from hurting 
themselves by running against them. 

In this country, and all through Eu- 
rope, but especially in France and in Italy, 
statues of stone and. marble are held in 
high .estimation^ approaching to idolatry. 


Once in my presence^ in London^ a figure 
which had lost its head^ arms^ and legs^ and 
of which^ in short, nothing but the trunk 
remained, was sold for 40^000 rupees 
(^•5000). It is really astonishing that 
people possessing so much knowledge and 
good sense, and who reproach the nobili^ 
of Hindoostan with wearing gold and silver 
ormonents Uke women, should be thus 
tempted by Satan to throw away their 
money upon useless blocks. There is a 
great variety of these figures, and they seem 
to have appropriate statues for every situ- 
ation : thus, at the doors or gates^ they 
have huge janitors; in the interior they 
have figures of women dancing with tam- 
bourines and other musical instruments; 
over the chimney-pieces they place some 
of the heathen deities of Greece; in the 
burying grounds they have the statues of 
the deceased ; and in the firardpnis ^t^v nni-. 


iijp devils^ tigers^ or wohres in pummt of ^ 
faxy in hopes that akiimals, on befanddiii^ 
tiiese figures^ will be frightoied^ uid not 
eome into the garden. 

The centre part of iome of the squarw 
is laid out in handsome gardisns^ when 
{he gented inhabitants walk eveiy morning 
and evening, and from whteh the common 
people are excluded. Bands of wanderii^ 
nrasidans also come here^ and play for a 
small reward*. 

Besides the squares, they have in Eu-> 
JDpe oth^ places of recreation for the 
inhabitants, called Parks: these are an 
extent of ground inclosed with a wall^ 
containing rows of shady trees, verdant 


> la the original^ the plan of the square h delU 

vot. I. H 


pastures^ and brooks of water^ over which 
are thrown ornamental arches^ either of 
stone or marble. Cattle and sheep are 
pernutted to graze in these parks ; and deer 
are frequently allowed to run wild in them, 
and increase their numbers. The flesh of 
the last-mentioned animals is highly prizied;^ 
and when one of them is required for the 
table^ a good marksman is employed to kill 
him with a musket. In some of the parks 
there are handsome buUdings and delightful 
gardens^ to which the inhabitants of the. 
city resort in great numbers on Sundays. 

The country all round Dublin' is very 
picturesque^ and in that respect it fax sur- 
passes London. At the distance of a few 
miles from the city^ there is a great varie^ 
of hamlets and country-houses, where 
the people of opulence reside during the 


TTie most charming place I have ever 
beheld is Phoenix Park. Besides the beau- 
ties which I have described as belonging to 
parks in general^ it contains several buildings 
ef hewn stone ; and the Dublin river runs 
through the middle of it/ the banks df 
which are sloped^ and formed into verdant 
lawns ; and over the stream are erected 
two elegant stone bridges : it also contains- 
several rising grounds or hills, on the 
shaded sides of which, during the winter, 
snow is sometimes to be seen, while the 
other parts retain their verdure : this forms^ 
an agreeable contrast, and renders the 

whole of the sceneiy peculiarly interesting; 
On viemng du. Wl spoU - nJe 
sensible of the just sentiments of the English 
gaitlemen in India^ who, notwithstanding 
thdr high rank and great incomes, consider 
that country as merely a place of tem- 
porary sojoiiiii, and have their thoughts 

< H 2 


always bent upon returmng to their native 

Another captivatuig scene near DuUin 
18 the 86a-side> the prospeet from which 
is beautiful^ and enlivened by the view of 
many himdred ships at anchor. All along 
the shore^ for several miles^ they faaiae 
wooden houses placed upon wheels^ for iJie 
convenience of private bathing. These 
macMnes are drawn by horses into the 
proper depth of water : a door then opens 
towards the sea^ and a person may peifenn. 
his ablutions with the greatest privacy, and 
benefit to his health. 

The greatest curiosity of this ci^ is a 
tower which is built in the sea, at the 
distance of two miles, and is united to the 
shore by a vi^ or pier forty yards io 
fareadtb* On this tower they ev^ry niirht^ 


light up an immeiise lantern mth a great 
number of lamps; by seeing which, the 
people on board ships bound for this har«> 
\iOvur, steer their course, and avoid the 
shoals and rocks which obstruct the ficee 
navigation of this port. Bendes the advan- 
tage of a safe communication with the 
Light-house, the Ker is usefol, to prevent 
the sea from encroacUng on the dty. 

The river whidi runs through Dublin 

^ called the Li%, and is as latge as tibe 

Goompty (of Lucknow), when full : both 

banks of it are lined with stone ; and there 

are six handsome bridges over it« The 

skies of these bridges are defended by iron 

railings, to which are affixed a number of 

the glass vases I have before described, 

for holding lamps; and at night, when 

these are lighted up, they have quite the 

appearance of illuminations made by the 



nobility of Hindoostan^ on a marrii^e^ ov 
some other rejoicing. In this country 
there are numerous canals^ for the conv^- 
ance. of coals and other heavy goods from 
one part of the kin^om to another. There 
is one which runs from Dublin to Limerick^ 
upon which are several covered boats re- 
sembling our budgerows : but some of these 
are much lai^r^ and wilK cariy a great 
nmnber of passengers. These boats are 
drawn by horses^ which proceed along a 
level road formed on the bank of the canal, 
which is generally shaded by rows of trees* 
By the contrivance of gates or locks *, a 
sufficient quantity of water is always re- 
tuned in the canak ; and in case of its 
overflowing, it can be let off into other 
channels. In the vicinity of this city are 

• In the original a drawing of the lock- in 


also several docks for building ships^ the 
construction of which is very curious. 

Of the public buildings^ the College is 

the most cdebrated. The entrance to this 

is through a lofty arched gateway ; 6|^>o» 

site to which is a building five stories high, 

containing the apartments of the students^ 

of whom there have been, some years, as 

many as twelve hundred at the same time. 

Hie library is a very elegant room^ one 

hundred : yards in length, and twenty in 

breadth: the walb are all fitted up with 

shelves, which contain above 40,000 vo^ 

lumes, in various languages, and every^ 

branch of science. I was much pleased to 

find here several Persian books; among: 

which were two very elegant manuscript 

copies of the Shahnameh (an heroic poem 

on the ancient history of Persia), and the Five 

Poems of Nizamy. The Museum is also. 



% fine room : it contains a great number 
of curio^ties^ principally collected from 
foreign countries: one of these was a 
human body wrapt up in cloths and gum^ 
which had be«i brought from the pyramids 
oi £gypt« At the back of the College is 
an extensire meadow^ divided into walks, 
and duided by trees^ which serves as a place 
of recreation ior the students* 

At the time of my vii^t to the CoU^e, 
Ifae chief or head of the Universily was 
Provost Guemey. He first honoured me 
with an invitation to inspect the (Allege, 
aiid afterwards requested I would favour 
him with my company to dinner. He^ and 
his lady^ a very sensible and intelligent 
woman^ behaved to me with the most 
marked attention and politeness. At his 
table I had the pleasure of meeting with 
Dr.Brown^ a member of Parliament^ and 


a great fiAvourite of the people of Ireland ; 
also a Dr. Hall ; both of ivhom dfterwards 
honoured me with their friendship. I was 
so much pleased with the wit*and agreeable 
conversation of Mrs. Brown^ l^at I wrote 
a poem in her praise^ and sent it to her 
from London.' 

Next in rank among the pnbfic buildings, 
is the Parliament House. This is divided 
into two large apartments, and several 
offices. In one of the iq^rtments the 
Lords meet ; and in the other, the Com- 
mons, or representatives of the people, 
assemble. These rooms are hung round 
with tapestry f on which are dq)icted the 
representations of battles, and other events 
that occur in thrir history. At first I thought 
they were paintings, but, upon examination, 
£scovered, to my great astonishment, that 
die %ure8 were all worked on the cloth. 

H 5 


I next visited the Custom House^ and 
the Exchange : these are both noble build- 
ings. In the former^ the duties upon all 
goods exported or imported . are received; 

and in the latter the merchants assemble 


to negotiate their concerns. One of the 
greatest curiosities I observed here was a 
wind clock: it had a dial resembling a 
common clock, with two hands, which 
indicated the exact point whence the wind 
blew. I afterwards proceeded to the Courts 
of Law, and then to a superb dome called 
the Rotunda. This latter place was built 
for a public music-room, and will hold 
4000 persons, but is now used by Govern- 
ment as a barrack for soldiers. 

The five buildings I have mentioned 
are constructed of beautiful hewn stone; 
and the four latter have, in the centre of 
each^ a lofiy dome^ whence^ through laige 


glazed windows^ the light is communicated 
to the interior: they are also adorned in 

front by arcades of lofty pillars. 

•■ .■ •.. • 

In this city there are a great number 
of places of public worship, several of which 
I visited. The most celebrated of them is 
called Christ Church : it is very large, and 
above 600 years old. In it, they never 
permit the men and women to sit together^ 
which appears to me an exceUent regulation. 
The barracks of Dublin are very extensive ; 
and there are two handsome parades, well 
paved and flawed, for the exercise of 
troops in rainy weather. 

The public hospitals of this city are 
numerous, and are admirable institutions. 
One of these is for the delivery of poor 
pregnant women ; another for the reception 
and education of orphans ; and a third for 

156 tHt rrsAVBiiS op 

the mkhltenaAce of wounded or worn-out 

In these countries it is common for 
persons^ whra dyings to bequeath estates^ 
or large sums of money^ to endow hospitals^ 
or for other charitable purposes. This 
custom is truly praise-worthy^ and should 
be ^accepted as an excuse for those who^ 
during their existence in this worlds hoard 
up their riches^ and of^ deny themselves 
the enjoyrnents of life. 

In this city there are but two hot baths^ 
the roofs of which resemble large ovens. 
They are not properly fitted up ; and are 
so Bittail^ that with difficulty they hold one 
perMn ; and even then &e water does not 
rise above his middle. Being a case of 
iKecessity, I bathed in one of them ; but 
there were not any attendants to assist me ; 


and instead of a rubber^ I yams obliged to 
use a brushy made (I hope) of horse*s hair% 
such as they clean shoes with. The fact is^ 
that in winter the people of Dublin, never 
bathe^ and in summer they go into the sea 
, or river : these baths are therefore entirely 
designed for invdids or convalescents. 

Dublin can boast but of two public 
Theatres or Play-»houses, each of whidi will 
contain about 1500 persons^ The half of 
the building which is impropriated to- the 
audience is divided into three parts, deno- 
minated^ the Boxei^, Ht, and Gallery t c the 
finft of these is intended for the nolnlity 
and gentry, the second for the tradesmen, 
and ^ third for die lower classes of people* 
The prices of admittance are, five shillii^ 

* Hog*8 bristles are an abomination to Moham- 
. f Ititbb^rl^iiUd>tliepla&of4ePl0yiiouieiigiireib: 


three shillings^ and one shilling. The 
other half of the building is occupied by the 
stage^ on which the actors exhibit : this is 
subdivided by a number of curtains and 
scenes^ upon which are painted cities^ castles, 
gardens, forests, &c. The whole of the 
house is well lighted, by candles placed in 
chandeliers, lustres, &c. 

In the exhibition which afforded me the 
greatest amusement, the actors ^spoke in 
some barbarous language. One of them 
represented an Ethiopian magician, called 
Harlequin^ with whom the daughter of a 
nobleman fedls desperately in love : the 
ma^cian in consequence conveys her, while 
asleep in her bed, to his own country. 
Here she is visited by the Queen of the 
Fairies, and several of her attendants, aU 
of whom descend on the stage in flying 
thrones; they reproach her for her partiality 


to such a wretch^ and advise her to discard 
him : she^ after shewing evident proofs of 
her attachment to the ma^cian^ yields Jbo 
their advice, and requests th^ will assist 
her to return home. The queen orders 
one of the attendants to accompany the 
young lady, and to remain with her as a 
protection against the power of the magician^ 
and to assist her father and her intended 
husband. Harlequin, however, contrives to 
visit his mistress ; and the lovers being 
soon reconciled, they attempt at one time 
to escape in a coach, at another in a ship^ 
but are always brought back. At lengthy 
in one of the affrays, the father is wounded^ 
and confined to his bed : here he is visited 
by the Angel of Death, represented by the 
skeleton of a man with a dart in his hand^ 
who tells him he must either marry his 
daughter to Harlequin, or accompany him. 
The father consents to the marriage^ which 


is celebrated with great rejoicings; and 
thus ends the fiarce. Another of their 
exhibitions was named T%6 Taking of Se-- 
ringapatam : all the scenes in this^ were 
taken from a book recently published^ con- 
tuning an account of the late war in Mysore^ 
and the fall of Tlppoo Sultan. The repre- 
sentation was so correct, that every thing 
s^ypeared natural ; and the conclusion was 
very affecting. 

I was mudi entertained by an exhibition 
of Horsemanship, by Mr. Astley and his 
company. They have an established house 
in London, but come over to Dublin for 
four or five months in every year, to gratify 
the Irish, by displaying their skill in this 
sdence, which fiair surpasses any thing lever 
saw in India. 

I was also mudi astomshed on sedng 


a new invention of the Europeans^ called 
a Panorama. The scene was Gibraltar^ a 
celebrated fort belonging to the English^ at 
the entrance of the Mediterranean Sea^ on 
the coast of Spain. I was led by a dark 
entrance into the middle of a large room> 
round which a picture of this femed fortress 
was hung ; but^ by some contrivance^ the 
li^t W2» so directed, that every object 
appeared as natural as life. Tbey also 
exhibited an engagement between au Eng- 
lish and a French fleet, in which not ^nly 
the noise of cannon was distinctly heardj. 
but also the balls flew about^. and carried 
away the masts and s^ls of the adversaries* 



Character of the Irish, Caricatures, Trottlk- 
some curiosity of the common people. Heavy 
fall of snow. Severe cold. Climate of IrC" 
land — advantages thereof. Slatting, AccoiM. 
of the author*s particular friends or patrons. 
Mode of living of the Irish, The author 
leaves Dublin — his passage to England — 
he lands at Holyhead, Description of fFales, 
and of the city of Chester, The author arrives 
in London, 

L SHALL here endeavour to sketch the 
character of the Irish. The greater number 
of them are Roman-Catholics^ or followers 
of the religion of the Pope ; only a small 
proportion of them being of the religion 
of the English^ whom the former call 


Dissenters or Philosophers (i.e. Deists or 
Atheists) . 

They are not so intolerant as the 
English^ neither have they the austerity and 
bigotry of the Scotch. In bravery and 
determination, hospitality, and prodigaUty^ 
freedom of speech and open-heartedness, 
they surpass the English and Scotch, but 
are deficient in prudence and sound judg- 
ment: they are nevertheless witty, and 
quick of comprehension. Thus my land- 
lady and her children soon comprehended 
my broken English ; and what I could not 
explain by language, they understood by 
signs : nay, before I had been a fortnight 
in their house, they could even understand 
my disfigured translations of Persian poetry. 
When I was about to leave them, and 
proceed on my journey, many of my Mends 
speared much afiected, and said : ^^ With 


your little knowledge of the language^ yott 
will suffer much distress in England; for 
the people there will not give themselves 
" any trouble to comprehend your meanings 
*^ or to make themselves useful to yon.** 
In fact, after I had resided for a whole year 
in England, and could speak the language a 
hundred times better than on my first 
arrival, I found much more difficulty in ob- 
tiuning what I wanted, than I did in Ireland. 

In Dublin, if I happened to lose my way> 
and inquired it of any person, he would, 
immediately on perceiidiig I was a foreigner, 
quit his work, and accompany me to the 
place where I wished to go. One night, as 
I was going to pay a visit at a considerable 
distance, I asked a man, which was the road. 
He instantly accompanied me; and when 
we arrived at a particular spot, I knew 
where we were, and, having thanked him 


for the trouble he had taken^ said I was 
now perfeedy acquainted with die remainder 
of the road^ and begged he would return 
home. He would not conaent ; but^ afiter 
iifc had gone some distance further^ I in- 
sisted upon his leaving me, otherwise I 
should relinquish my visit. He apparently 
complied ; but I could perceive, that, from 
hia great care oi me, he still followed. 
Bdng arrived at the door of my friend's 
house, I waited for some time, that I might 
again have an opportunity of thanking him ; 
but as soon as he saw that I had reached a 
^■ee of security, be turned round, and 
wait towards faiome. 

The Irish, by reason of their liberality 
and prodigality, seldom have it in their 
power to assist their friends in pecuniary 
eptttters: they are generally in 3traitened 
circumstances them9elve3, and therefore 


eannot^ or do not aim at the comforts and 
elegance of the English: neither do diey 
take pwis to acquire riches and honours 
like the Scotdhi^ by limiting their expences 
when in the receipt of good incomes^ and 
paying attention to the Great. In emise- 
quence of this want of prudence^ they 
seldom attain to high dignities, and but few 
of them, comparatively, make much progress 
in science. 

Their great national defect, howevar, is 
excess in drinking. The rich expend a. vast 
deal in wine; and the common people 
consume immense quantities of a fieiy 
spirit, called whiskey y which is the peculiar 
manufacture of this country and piart of 

One evening that I dined ina fau^ 
company we sat down to table at six 


o^dock: the master of liie house imme- 
diately commenced asldi^ us to drink 
wine, and, under varioos jwetenoes, re- 
plenished oar passes ; but perooving that 
I was bai^waid in emptyii^ mine, he 
called for two water glasses, and, having 
filled them with daiet, insisted iipcm m j 
taking one of them. After the taUe-dofh 
was removed, he first drank the health of 
the King, then of the Queen ; after which 
he toasted a number of beautiftd young 
ladies with whom I was acquainted, none 
of which I dared to refuse. Thus the time 
passed till two o'clock in the morning; and 
we had been sitting for dght hours: he 
then called to his servants to bring a fresh 
supjdy of wiae. Although I was so much 
intoxicated that I could scarcely walk, yet 
on hearing this order, I was so frightened, 
that I arose, and requested permission to 
retire. He said he was sorry I should 

]68 THB TmA.VBL8 OP 

think of going away so soon: that he wuhed 
I would stay till the wine was finished, alter 
whicli he would call for tea and coffee. I 
had heard from Englishmen, that the Irish, 
after they get drunk at table, quarrel, and 
kill each other in duels il b^^ I n^^st de- 
dmre, that I never saw them guilty of any 
rudeness, or of the smallest improprie^. 

The painters of these countries aome- 
times draw ridiculous figures, called Cari^ 
catures, which it is impossible to bdiold 
without laughing. They, in general, aie 
intended to exhibit the defects or follies of 
the Nfinisters or other great men, and 
sometimes to turn into ridicule the pre- 
vailing passbn or vice of the? people ai 
large. These pictures are sold in sefs, 
and consist of several pieces. One of them 
winch was shewn to me contained - a can-* 
cature of each of these natiims. The first 


exhilnted a Scotchlnan; quittitig his countiy 
to seek kis fortune: and the itch bdng.a 
v^ry common complaint in Scotland^ this 
poor jfiellow is drawl!, ruUnii^ his back 
agsdnst a mile-stone^ on the road to London* 
In the next page he is shewn in the habit 
of a postman^ carrying a Img of letters jErom 
one village to another* In the third page, 
he becomes a gentlemaq's steward : in this 
Btuation^ by his industry^ and attention to 
the mshes of his master^ he acquires some 
money> \dlich he lends out at interest to his 
master^ and thus becomes rich. In the 
fourth page^ he gets acquiunted with an opu- 
l^t English widow^ whom he marries, and 
Iherel^ acquires some degree of importance. 
Inthe fifth page, he is represented as an 
.attaidant on the minister, with whom, by 
his assiduity and flattery, he becomes a 
.fiMTOurite, and obtains a post und^r Govem- 
mi^it. In the last page, he is seated in 

VOL. I. 


the chidr of the Vuder, having, by industry 
and perseverance, dms raised himself^ from 
the most abject state of pover^, to the 
highest {situation which can be held by a 

Hie Irishman's career is not so long, 
nor so varickl. He eidists as a soldier, and, 
having distinguished himself by \m bravery, 
is promoted by d^rees to the rank of 
General. He then quarrels at table with 
aiiother officer ; they fight, and he is killed 
in the duel. 

The Engtishman is represented as a £at 
bull (therefore named John Butt) ; and as 
tiiat animal is remarkable for eating a great 
deal, and for excessive courage and obsti* 
nacy, so the EngUdh seem to consider eating 
and drinking as their chief happiness, are 
frequently blunt and uncouth in their main 


nera, and oftea ran blincHyinto danger and 
unnecessary expenee/ 


The Irish women have not such elegance 
of manners, nor the handsome eyes and 
hair of the English; neither are they as 
tall nor so good figures as the Scotch ; but 
they have much finer complexions, are 
warm in their affections^ hvely^ and agree- 

For some time after my arrival in Dub- 
lin, I was greatly incommoded by the 
common people crowding round me, when^ 
ever I went out. They were all very cu- 
rious to see me, but had no intention of 
ofiendmg me. Some said I must be the 
RuBsian General, who had been for some 
time expected ; others affirmed I was ather 
a German or Spanish nobleman ; but tl)e 

greater part agreed that I was ^ Pei^sian 

I 2 


\Prince. One day, a great crowd having 
assembled about me, a shopkeeper advised 
me to walk into his house, and to sit down 
till they should disperse. I accepted his 
kind invitation, and went into the shop, 
where I amused myself by looking at some 
penknives, scissars, &c. The people how- 
ever thronged so about his windows, that 
several of the panes were broken ; and the 
crowd being very great, it was in vain to 
ask who had done it. 

About a fortnight after my arrival, there 
fell a very heavy shower of snow. As I 
had never before seen any thing of the kind, 
I was much delighted by it. The roofe of 
the houses and tops of the walls were soon 
covered with it, and in two or three days 
the fields and mountains, as far as the eye 
could reach, became a white sur&ce. 
During the time it continued to snow, the 


cold was not very great; but 
ceased, notwithstanding I had all my doors' 
and windows shut^ and had three blankets- 
on my bed, I felt the frost pierce through 
me like an arrow. The fire had scarcely 
any effect on me ; for while I warmed one 
side, I was frozen on the oUier; and I 
frequently burned my fingers before I was 
aware of the heat. At length I discovered^ 
that the best remedy was walking; and 
during the continulation of the frost, I 
walked every day seven or eight miles. 1 
was apprehensive that my health would 
have suffered from the severity of the cli- 
mate ; but, on the contrary, I had a keen 
appetite, and found myself every day get: 
stronger and more active. 

I recollect that in India, when I only 
wore a single vest of Dacca muslin, if I 

walked a mile I was completely tired ; but, 



here^ when my clothes would have heeH a 
heavy load for an ass^ I could have run for 
miles without feelhig the smallest &tigue. 
In India^ I dqpt daily seven or eight hours^ 
at different times, without feeling refreshed ; 
but during the two months I remained in 
Ireland, I never 8lq)t more than four hours 
any night, and yet I never felt an inch* 
ntd^on to lie down in the day lime. 

* The coldness of the climate in these 
ii^lands is, lam oonvinced,. very beneficM, 
aiid attended with many didvantages to the 
irtfiabitants. in the first place, it renders 
the men vigorous both in mind and body, 
anid the women feir and handsome. Se- 
condly, it obliges them to take exercise, 
which hardens and invigorates the con- 
stitution, and ihspires them with that 
valour, by which they are enabled to en- 
counter the greatest hardships, and to 


acquire immortal fame. During my resi» 
dence in Ireland am}, England, I have 
frequently received contusions without being 
sensible of them at the time, the tenth part 
of which would in India have l^d me upon 
the bed of sickness. Thirdly;, it renders 
them open-hearted and sincere^ steady ii| 
the pursuit of knowledge, and not led away 
by the flights of &n(y, oj: .^allies of ima^- 
nation. I have frequently seen both men 
and women of twenty years of age, who 
possessed not an idea that could interfisre 
with their acquirement qi science or the 
use&d arts. The expessive cold prevents 
their sitting idle ; and the mind being there- 
fore engaged^ is prevented from wanderii^ 
to, or dwelling on things that are improper. 
Boys and girls of fifteen years of age are, 
here, as innocent ^s th^ children of India 
of five or six, and have no wish beyond the 

amusement of playtluijgs^ or the produce 



of a pastry-cook's shop. I have even seen 
grown-up persons, who had acquired repu- 
lotion in their own line of business, and 
many of them had accumulated fortunes, 
but who were as ignorant of the world as 
boys in the f^t. Another great advantage 
of the coldness of the atmosphere, is their 
being accustomed to wear a number of 
tight-made clothes, which are troublesome 
to take off, and are very inconvenient for 
lyii^ down : thus they are prevented from 
indulging in indolent halnts during the 
day ; and their nights are passed in harm- 
less sleep, contrary to the custom of India, 
where the day is frequently devoted to 
sensuality and repose, and the night to 
business or conviviality. 

* ■ 

What I am now about to relate ^dll, I 
fear, not be credited (by my countiymoi), 
but is^ nevertheless^ an absolute fioct. In 


these countries it frequently happens that 
the ponds and rivers are frozen over; and 
the ice^ being of sufiicient strength to bear 
a great weighty numbers o£ people assemble 
thereon^ and amuse themselves in skating. 
For this purpose it is requisite to be pro- 
vided with a kind of wooden shoes^ having 
pieces of iron fixed to the soles. At first 
this appears a very difficult operation^ and 
many get severe &lls ; but^ afi;er some 
months^ practice^ they can slide along the 
ice with the rapidity of a horse on a fine 
road, and turn, in all directions^ quicker 
than the best-trained charger. I have even 
seen them engrave the name of a lady on the 
ice with the heel of their skate. In England 
and Ireland this art is only practised for 
amusement ; but in Holland, I have been 
informed, the women will carry a basket of 
c^gs or butter, in this maimer^ twenty miles 

to market^ and return home to dinner. 


176 'TH£ TKAVEL8 OP 

I renuuned forty-lour days in Dublin ; 
kttdf in the course of my whole life, never 
spent my time so agreeably. Were I to 
nlention the name of every person from 
whom I experienced hospitality and didlity, 
I should tire my readers. I shall therefore 
only enumerate a few of my particular 
friends. The principal of these were Sir 
George and Lady Shee, He had resided 
for many years in India, and was for some 
time paymaster at Ferrokhabad. He was 
at this time employed by the Government 
of Ireland, was a great favourite with Lord 
Comwallis, and did me tiie honour of beii^ 
my inteipreter with his Lordship. Lady 
Shee was remarkable for mildness of dispo* 
sition, el^nce of manners, skill in music^ 
and sweetness of voice. 

From Lord and Lady Carleton I expe- 
rienced much attention and politeness} their 


hoOQe was a repository of every tbipg that 
was grand or curious. . Mapy of ijie articles 
attracted my wonder ^nd astoiushment ; but 
they were so numerous and extraordinai)^ 
as to exceed the powers pf descripticMa. 
His lordship held the honourable office of 
Chief Justice of Ireland. 

The Duke of Leinster^ the first of the 
nobles of this kingdom^ honoured me witl) 
aa invitation : his house is the most superb 
of any in Dublin^ and contains a very nume- 
rous and valuable collection of statues and 
paintings* His grace is distinguished for 
the dignity of his manners, and the urbani^ 
of his disposition* He is Uessed with seve^ 
nd angelic daughters. 

I here had the good fortune to meet 
with Colonel Wombell, a gentleman I had 
long known in India, from whom I ^xpeAr 


enoed many acts of fnendiship^ and witb 
whom I daily spent some happy hours. 
This gendeman was much attached to the 
natives of India^ and spoke their lai^uage 
fluently. He was, at this period. Colonel 
of the Norfolk Volunteer Militia, and asked 
me several times to dine at the r^mentat 
mess, where he introduced me to some of 
the finest-looking young men I ever saw in 
my life. Norfolk is celebrated above all 
the countries in . England for fine poultry, 
abundance of game, and handsome women. 

I here had the pleasure of forming an 
acquaintance with General Valiancy, an 
officer of artillery, who, although of a re- 
markable short stature, had a most expanded 
heart: he was a great adept in acquiring 
languages, and was much delighted with 
the Hebrew, Arabic, and Persian dialects : 
he informed me^ that there was a consi- 


derable analogy between the Hindoostany 
and Irish languages. To Lords Shannon 
and Newcomen^ Mr. White^ Mr. Irving, and 
Mrs. Humphries, I feel grateful for their 
attention and hospitality. 

The various acts of kindness and hos* 
pitaUty I received from Mrs. Fleming are 
innumerable. This lady having been in- 
formed that I had become acquainted with 
her husband at the house of our mutual 
friend^ Mr. W. A. Brooke^ in Calcutta, 
immediately sent a gentleman to request I 
would call on her. She afterwards gave 
,me many invitations to her house, and 
introduced me to a numerous circle of her 
acquaintance. This lady one day asked 
me^ if her husband spent his time pleasantly 
in Calcutta. I replied^ ^^ How is it possible 
he can be happy while separated frt)m so 
chairming a companion as you." She smiled^ 
and said she believed 1 oiAy ftaXXfti^^ V« 


Two of her daughters had aceompaiued 
thdur &ther to India^ but there still reihBined 
ait home three ^rls^ beautiful as theiSbicmi 

. » 

Having hitherto omitted giving any 
description of the mode of living of the Irish, 
I shall here state, that the break£Btst is 
generally confined to the £ftmily. At -dinner, 
they meet at each other^s houses, - in laige 
parties : this meal is divided into three parts, 
at the end of each of which, a table-doth is 
removed. After dinner the gentlemen conti- 
nue to drink mne for one or two hours : the^ 
then join the ladies, and drink tea or cofifee: 
and at night they again sit down to what is 
called supper. This last meal I enjoyed more 
than any other, as there is less ceriemooy ob^ 
served at it than at dinner: the servants 
are soon dismissed, and the guests help 


Hie mode of paying campHmentary visits 
here is very easy ; they merely knock at eacll 
other's doors^ and give their names^ written 
on a square piece of pasteboard^ called a 
cardy to the servant; but if they wish to see 
tiie master of the house^ they go in^ and 
sit with him half an hour*. 

Nothing pleased me more in Europe than 
the attendance of servants being dispensed 
with. In India, they remain constantly in 
the room; but here they retire as soon as 
dinner is over^ and remain till summoned 
by the bell. 

I was also much pleased to observe^ that 
in European society, when a person is 
speaking, the others never interrupt him, 
and the conversation is carried on in a 

• The natives of India always send a message before, 
to ask whether the visit will be convenieDt. 


gentle tone of voice. One evenings while 
I was engaged in conversation with the lady 
of the house^ the servant entered with a 
laige tray of costly china; and his foot 
catching the edge of the carpet^ he fell^ 
and broke the whole to pieces: the lady, 
however, never noticed the circumstance, 
but continued her conversation with me in 
die most undisturbed manner. 

It affords me much satisfaction thus to 
record the amiable qualities of the Irish; 
as, previous to my landing, I had conceived 
strong prejudices against them, in conse- 
quence of the misrepresentation of some of 
the passengers on board our ship, who had 
described them as rude, irascible, and savage. 

Captain Williamson, one of the passen- 
gers on board the Christiana, (who was of 
a sarcastic disposition) used constantly to 



frighten me, with accounts of the uncivil 
treatment I should meet with in England : 
thus one day at dinner, when, for want of 
employment, I had laid a piece of bread on 
the table-cloth, and was cutting it with 
great caution, he called out to me, ^^ If in 
England you cut your bread in that manner^ 
die ladies, alarmed for their table-cloths^ 
will never invite you to their houses a second 
time ; nor will you ever find any person 
Ibere who will assist you to carve your meat 
u we do h^e." If ever I chanced to spilt 
ibe gravy or soup on the cloth, or my own 
garments, he used to look at me with aver- 
mm, and say, ^^ If you do so in Liondon^ 
nobody will sit at table with you/' Notwithi- 
standing this, both in Dublin and in Lon- 
don^ wherever I was invited, the master and 
mistress of the house not only excused my 
awkwardness, but pressed me to eat in my 
own country manner; and when I refused^ 

186 THE TJU.V£l,S OF: 

always^ cut the meat for me. Another time 
he tdid me^ that in Lcmdon no person 
woidd afigist another with i»3^nee.; -ajuA 
that without a bribe they would nofr wesk kt 
me pass al6ng the street, mud^ IcM point 
out the road. In contiadictiaii to tlu% 
oben, under pretence of invitmg oie te tafcie 
a walk, my acquaintances hate caiti^ 9m 
to see Tarious places, which cogl, thsoi ill 
least four or fi^e shillings. Nttmbeiles^firiiO 
weiie the presents fo»^i]p<m Ato,^ 
pent-knives, spectadesi watchesi aad sMther 
English curioffities ; and I was evenfreqiieull^ 
scdidted to accept the loan of ICfOOor aOQO 
guineas. I have been induced to. rehli 
these anecdotes, that the dlffier^ieer.bcftw^eii 
the dispositions of the English in Xndii^ 
and the genuine unsophisticated Byigfeh, 
may be known. 

On the l6th of Januaiy, 1800, having 


taken ieave of all my friends^ I embarked 
on 4xiard one of the veissels called PachetSf 
wliifdi convey the letters and passengers 
£pom ' oiie island to asiotlier. About the 
middle ef the night ive quitted the IiriiA 
shore ; [ Jind the wiiid being very farourable^ 
Wie east andhor early next moming'at 
IioIylu»id. We were soon alter la:nded, find 
went to the best inn in tlie town^ kept by a 
person named Jackson. This man, seeiiig 
thiU; I was a foreigner^ thought that he could 
reap some advaxiti^ by detaining melat his 
house : he therefore endeawiured to persuade 
me to remain a short time at Hol}iiead> 
but two Irish gefntlemen^ who^ accompanied 
by a' beautiful young womany were then at 
the inn, perceivingiiis intention, abused him 
for k, invited me to dine with them, and 
in the etening put me into the mall coach, 
which was setting out for Chester. 


Holyhead is a small and dirty town^ and 
only known as being the port opposite 
Dublin: it is situated in a small island, 
separated from Wales by an arm oi the sea 
almost as broad as the river Ganges at Cal- 
cutta. Wales is one of the three divisions 
which^ with England and Scotland^ consti- 
tute Great Britain. The Heir Apparent, or 
eldest son of the King, takes his tide from 
this province, and is called Prince of fFaks. 

Aflter travelling twenty-five miles, we 
arrived at the arm of the sea above men- 
tioned, and in a short time were ferried to 
the opposite side, where there is a town 
called Bangor Ferry. Here we were re- 
freshed by an excellent breakfast, and 
immediately after proceeded on our journey. 
Our ne)ft stage was to Aber-Conway^ a very 
ancient city, situated between lofty moun- 
tains, on the banks of a fine river, which 


joins the sea a little below the town . This 
place was formerly fortified^ and several of 
die walls are slill standings which much 
resemble those of Allahabad. After dinner 
we aginn entered the coach^ and at mid- 
night arrived^ without any accident^ ' at 
CSiester. Our route during this journey 
was over lofty hills^ so that we were fre- 
quently obliged to alight from the coach^ 
and walk up the steepest of them. Although 
Wales is a very mountainous country^ it 
nevertheless contains a great quantity of 
arable land and excellent pastures for cattle. 

Chester, being the principal town of the 
county, where all the public business is 
transacted, is large and populous, and is 
said to be more ancient than London. In 
several particulars it differs from any other 
place I have seen. Some of the streets 
have colonnades, running from one end to 


the other of them^ under which th^ foot 
passengers can walk perfectly diy^ at aU 
seasons of the year. ^The middle of the 
streets is paved, and containsamp^ space 
for the carriages and horsemen, .. Many of 
the houses, have handsome' porticoes in 
front, supported by stone pillars, which 
give them a^ magnificent appeaisoce. These 
islands produce great abundance of fine 
dtone, and even the common walls, of the 
gardens and yards are built of this material. 

As several of niy Iris>i friends had 
recommended me to gentlemen in Chester, 
the latter had been for some time in 
expectation of my arrival. I was in con* 
sequence, early next morning, waited upon 
by a Mr. Fleming, and three or four other 
persons, vrfio loaded me with invitations, 
aiid accompanied me to look. at the city. 
At the hour for dinner^i a.huge party, 


consisting of some of the principal inhabi- 
ttots of the town^ assembled ; and in the 
evening we were most agreeably entertained 
mth music and dancing. When we broke 
up^ many of these hospitable people re* 
cpiestedthat T would stop for some time at 
Chester, and favour them with my com- 
pany : but, as I was veiy anxious to get to 
London, I decUned their polite invitations. 

By the advice of my friends, I agreed 
with the owner of the stage coach, that, 
instead of continuing the journey to London 
without intermission, I should sleep one 
night on the road. It was between one 
and two in the morning when we quitted 
Chester ; and after a journey of forty-nine 
miles we breakfasted at Stafford. It was 
midnight before we reached Northampton, 
where I stopped for the remainder of the 
nieht, and felt truly grateful to my friends 


for their good advice^ as I thereby enjoyed 
a comfortable supper^ and a refireshuig sleqp^ 
after the fatigue of a long day*s journey. 
On the following mommg I again set out 
m the coach ; and on the 25th of Shabaii^ 
corresponding to the 21st of January 1800^ 
arrived safe in London^ being five days 
short of a Lunar year from the period of 
my leaving Calcutta. 



The Author hires lodgings in London. Interview 
tvith the President of the Board of Controul. 
Is introduced at Court '^Attention of the 
PrinceSf and of the Nobility. Public amuse- 
ments. The jiuthor^s original view in coming 
to England-^disappointment ''^compensated 
by the kindness of his friends. He visits 
Windsor — arrives at Oxfordr^-Hiccount of the 
University '-''proceeds to Blenheim — descrip- 
tion of the park and house — visits Colonel 
Cox. Mode of sporting in England. The 
Autltor proceeds to the house of Mr. Hastings 
— Returns to London. Ode to London. 

Jr BEvious to my departure from Dublin^ 
I had taken the precaution of writing to 
my friend and shipmate^ Captain Richard* 
son^ to hire apartments for me in the same 
house where he resided ; and immediately 

VOL. I. K 


on my arrival, I proceeded to Margaret 
Street, where I had the pleasure of finding 
him : but as the lodgings he had provided 
for me were up two pdrs of stairs, I thought 
them inconvenient, and, after remaining 
there a week, removed to others in the 
same street. Being dissatisfied with these, 
I went to Ibbetson's Hotel, in Vere Street : 
this situation was veiy agreeable, but the 
expences were beyond my means : I there- 
fore again removed to a house in that 
neighbourhood, where there were both hot 
and cold baths, and where I enjoyed the 
luxury of daily ablution. I continued in 
this residence for seven months ; at the end 
of which time, having a dispute with the 
master of the house, I hired apartments in 
Upper Berkeley Street. The mistress of 
this house was an Irish woman, and was 
employed ^ — • 


Although I was much gratified by seeing a 
number of beautiful women^ who frequently 
visited at the house^ I could not agree widi 
the temper of my landlady^ and once more 
changed my residence, removing to Rath- 
bone Place. 

A few days after I was settled in my 
new lodgings, some of my friends called, to 
remonstrate with me on having taken up 
my abode in a street, one half of the houses 
of which were inhabited by courtezans. 
They assured me that no ladies, or even 
gentlemen of character, would visit me in 
such a place : however, as I found my 
house very comfortable, and the situation 
was in many respects convenient, I deter* 
mined to remain where I was ; and as my 
reputation in the minds of the English was 
as deeply impressed as the carving on a 

stone, my friends had the condescension and 

K 2 


goodness to overlook this indiscretion ; and 
not only was I visited there by the first 
characters in London^ but even ladies of 
rank^ who had never in their lives before 
passed through this street^ used to call in 
thdr carriages at my door, and either send 
up their compliments, or leave their names 
written on cards. After a residence of 
fourteen months, I removed thence to 
Wardour Street, and afterwards to Bervndc 

Shortly after my arrival in London, I 
sent a note to Mr. Dundas, then one of the 
principal Ministers of the Empire, to solicit 
an interview : he immediately s^pointed a 
day, and, when I widted on him, received 
me with the greatest attention and Idndness. 
He afterwards invited me to his countiy- 
house at Wimbledon, where I was enter-* 
tained in the most agreeable and courteous 


manner^ by Lady Jane Dundas^ one of the 
most charming and sensiUe women in 

A few weeks subsequent to my visit to 
Mr.Dundas^ I had the honour of being 
introduced to the Kii^ ; and on the fol- 
lowing day was presented to her most 
gracious Miges^ Queen Charlotte. Botih 
of these illustrious personagi^ received mm 
in the most condescendii^ manner^ and^ 
after having honoured me with some con- 
versation^ commanded me to come firtH 
qu^dy to court. After this introduction, 
I received imitations from all the Princes ; 
and the Nobility vied wkh each other in 
their attention to me. Hospitality is on^ 
of the most esteemed virtues of the EngUsh ; 
and I experienced it to such a degree, that 
I was seldom disengaged. In these parties 
I enjoyed every luxury my heart could 



desire. Their viands were delidous^ and 
wines exquisite. The beauty of the women^ 
and their grace in dancing, delighted my 
imagination ; while the variety and melody 
of their music charmed all my senses. 

I may perhaps be accused of persona! 
vanity by saying, that my society was 
courted, and that my wit and repartees^ 
with some impromptu applications of Ori- 
ental poetry, were the subject of conversa- 
tion in the politest circles. I freely confess^ 
that, during my residence in England^ I was 
so exhilarated by the coolness of the climatey 

and so devoid of all care, that I followed 
the advice of our immortal poet Hafiz, 
and gave myself up to love and gaiety. 

I often visited all the public places of 
amusement in London ; and frequently had 
so many Opera tickets sent me by ladies 


of quaCtT, tint I had in opportoxnty of 
oUiging manyyoang Englishmen, by trans- 
ferring the tkbets to them. My amnsements 
were not however ocmfined to the metro- 
polis; I had many invitations to the ffistanee 
of forty, fifty, or e^bty nules fiom it ; on 
which occasions my friends were so obliging 
as to take me down in their own carriages, so 
that I thereby did not incur any expenoe* 

When I first arrived in London, it haA 
been my determination to have opened 
a Pubfic Academy to be patromzed bjr 
Government, for instructing such of the 
English as were destined to fill important 
situations in the East, in the Hindoostany, 
Persian, and Arabic languages. The plan 
I proposed was, that I should commence 
with a limited number of pupils, selected 
for the purpose, who were not to go abroad; 
but, each of these to instruct a number 



of Others : thus as one candle may light 
a thousand, so I hoped to have spread the 
cukivation of the Pei^an language all over 
the kingdom. By these means I expected 
to have passed my time in England in a 
rational and advantageous manner; bene-^ 
fiqiat both to myself^ and to the nation I 
cfune to visit. I therefore took an early 
opportunity of mentioning the subject to 
the Ministers of the Empire : but whether 
it was oMong to their having too many other 
affairs to attend to^ or that they did not give 
my plan that consideration which^ from its 
obvious utility^ it deserved, I met with no 
encouragement. What rendered their in- 
difference on this sul]ject very provoking, 
was : many individuals were so desirous. of 
learning the Oriental languages, that they 
attended self-taught masters^ ignorant of 
&msy prinriple of the science, and paid 
them half-a^guinea a lesson. 


A short tiine before I left England^ the 
Mmisters, having become sensible of the 
advantages likely to arise from such an 
institution^ made me an offer of 600O 
rupees (j^.750) annually^ with liberty to 
reside either in Oxford or London^ to 
superintend it ; but as I had then resolved 
to return to India^ and was disgusted mth 
their former apathy on the subject^ I politely 
excused myself. I^ however^ promised that 
if I should return to England^ I would then 
accept it^ and give my aid in establishing 
so laudable and requisite an institution. 

I have already stated^ diat the marks of 
attention^ and proofs of friendship^ which 
I received in London^ from various persons 
in all ranks^ were innumerable : in justice^ 
however^ to my most particular fiiends^ 
I shall take the liberty of reciting a few 
of their names. Among the foremost of 



these^ was Mr. Charles Cockerell. Had 
I been his brother, he could not have 
behaved with more kindness. He liberally 
sXipplied me with money for my drafts on 
Calcutta, and offered to advance any other 
sums I required : he also escorted me to all 
the places of public amusement, and invited 
me once every week to dine at his table, 
where I had an opportunity of meeting 
some of the handsomest women and the 
riiost agreeable company in England. I 
was present at one entertainment he gave, 
where seven hundred persons of rank and 
consequence sat down to a supper, at which 
were served up all the choicest fruits and 
rarities procurable in London : many of 
these were produced by artificial heat ; for 
the English, not content with the fruits of 
their own climate, contrive, by the assis- 
tance of glass and fire, to cultivate those of 
the torrid zone ; and, as a contrast to these. 


they form ice into the shape of peaches^ &c. 
which frequently deceive the beholder. This 
gentleman resided majiy years in India, and 
there acquired a large fortune .in the most 
honourable manner. , 

... ^ 

It is customary for gentlemen of fortune 
to quit London during the summer months^ 
and to amuse themselves by travelling about 
the country. In one of these tours, Mr. 
Cockerell did me the favour to take me 
with him. We travelled in a barouche or 
open carriage, drawn by four beautiful 
horses. Our first day's journey was to 
Windsor, the country residence of the King; 
The Palace, or Fort, is situated in an 
extensive and beautiful park, and contains ft 
number of elegant apartments. These are 
ornamented with a great variety of pictures^ 
principally of the ancient Kings, Queens, 
and Princesses of England* One of these 


rooms contained the portraits of twenty- foUr 
celebrated Beauties^ who gave brilliancy to 
die court of one of their Sovereigns: Thejr 
fvere painted from life, by command of the 
monarch, and are the most charming 
countenances I ever saw. The chapel 
belonging to the palace is an ancient 
building, and fitted up in a very peculiar 
style. In it are deposited the crown, the 
throne, and complete armour of each of the 
former Kings, all of which may be consi^ 
dered as veiy great curiosities. 

The following day we proceeded to the 
house of Mr. Addington, the prime mi^* 
nister, who possesses very extensive gardens, 
and whe|:e I had an opportunity of seeing a 
large collection of exotics. During the 
summer, these trees are exposed in the 
open air; but in winter they are shut up in 
rooms covered with glass. Our next stage 


was to the house of Mr. Goolding, where 
we were most hospitably entertained ; and 
in the evening, were amused by musicjf 
and the singing of the young ladies. On 
the fourth day^ soon after noon^ we entered 
Oxford, and took up our residence at the 
Star Inn. 

Oxford is a very ancient cily, and tb^ 
most celebrated ^at of Learning of th^ 
Empire. All the public buildings are con- 
structed of hewn stone, and much resemble 
in form some of the Hindoo temples. The 
streets are very wide and regular, and several 
of them are planted on each side with trees. 
In this place are assembled the most learned 
men of the nation, and students come here 
from all parts. 

There are twenty-three different colleges, 
each' containing an extensive library. In 


one of these libraries I saw nearly 10,000 
Arabic and Persian manuscripts. The col- 
lective name of these twenty-three coU^es 
is The University, meaning an assemblage 
of all the sciences. For the use of the 
University, a very magnificent Observatory 
has been erected, with much philosophical 
and astronomical skill. It contains a great 
variety of instruments, and some very large 

There is here, also, a large building for 
the sole use of anatomy. One of the Pro- 
fessors did me the favour to shew me every 
part of this edifice, and to explain many of 
the mysteries of this useful science, which 
afforded me very great satisfaction. Iii the 
hall, were suspended the skeletons not only 
of men, women, and children, but also of 
all species of animals. In another apart- 
ment was an exact representation of all the 


veins, arteries, and muscles of the human 
body, filled with red and yellow wax,* 
minutely imitating Nature. The Professor 
particulariy pointed out to me the great 
nerve, which, commencing at the head, 
runs down the back-bone, where it divides 
it into four great branches, one of which 
extends down each arm, and leg, to the 
ends of the fingers and toes. In another 
room were, preserved in spirits, several 
bodies of children, who had something 
peculiar in their conformation. One of these 
liLsus Naiurce had two heads and four feet^ 
but only one body. The mother having 
died in the act of parturition, the womb, 
with the children, was cut out, and pre- 
served entire. 

In one of the lower apartments appro- 
priated to dissection, I saw some students 
at work on a dead body. They also shewed 


me some candles which they said were made 
of human tallow^ and a great number of 
other curiosities. 

As Europeans are much more expe- 
rienced than we are in the science of ana- 
tomy, I shall here explain some of their 
opinions^ which are in opposition to ours. 

[N.B. Altliough this dissertation evinces that the 
Author lost no opportunity to acquire knowledge, )ret> 
as the subject is not a pleasing one, and can be inter-* 
esting only to few, the Translator has thought it better 
to omit it.] 

Having seen every thing that was curious 
in Oxford^ we proceeded to Blenhdbn^ the 
seat of the Duke of Marlborough. This 


place is, without comparison, superior to 
any thing I ever beheld. The beauties of 
Windsor Park faded before it; and every 
other place I had visited was effaced from 
my recollection, on viewing its magni- 
ficence. The park is fourteen miles in 
circumference, planted with large and shady 
trees. The house, or rather palace, is lofty 
and superb, and, with its various offices^ 
covers half a mile of groimd. Many rivulets 
of clear water run through the park ; and 
over the kigest of these are erected several 
handsome bridges. In the middle of thet 
park stEmds a stone pillar, seventy yard$ 
high, on the top of which is sculptured^ in 
marble, a statue of the great Duke, as large 
as life. This illustrious person was the 
Greneralissimo of Anne, one of the most 
celebrated Queens of England; and, in 
retiurn for his eminent services, was rewarded 
with this mansion, and a pension of 50,00O 

210 THE TRAVELS 09 • 

rupees annually. The trees in the park are 
said to have been planted to resemble an 
army drawn up in battle array ; and on the 
tapestry of the large rooms, the plans of his 
most celebrated battles are faithfully deli* 
neated in needle-work. 

After looking at the house and gardens^ 
we drove round the park, and thence pro- 
ceeded to the house of Mr. Molony, a friend 
of Mr. CockerelFs. Here we found a party 
invited to meet us ; and I had the pleaisure 
of being introduced to Mrs. Cox, the sister 
of Mrs . Pringle of Lucknow, under the care 
of whose worthy husband I left my fortune 
and family when I quitted that city. I was 
much rejoiced by this unexpected pleasure ; 
and Colonel Cox having invited us to visit 
them at Sandford Park, we went there the 
following day, and were most hospitably 
entertained by that gentleman and liis 


charming wife, with whose conversation 
and affability I was quite delighted. 

' Our next visit was to Mr. Stratton, a 
very engaging young man, who possesses an 
estate of 4000 acres in that neighbourhood. 
This gentleman is a great sportsman, and 
keeps a number of horses, dogs, &c. As 
I was anxious to see the mode of sporting 
HI England, he kindly offered me the use 
of one of his horses, and a gun. We set 
out early in the mormng, accompanied by 
two servants, to lead our horses and carry 
the game. We were out for nearly ten 
hours, sometimes walking, and at others 
riding, and returned mth twenty partridges 
and five hares. 

■ • * 

No country in the world produces a 
greater variety of sporting dogs than Eng- 
land. They have them, trained for every 


species of game. They have, gr^hounds 
for coursing, and other hounds for killing 
deer, foxes, &c.: these hunt together, in 
packs of fifty or sixty. They have aiko two 
distinct species of dogs for the gun. Those 
which accompanied us, were of tbe kind 
that, as soon as they smell the game, stop 
until the sportsman comes close up^ when, 
at his command, they move gently forward 
and rouse the game. I was muph delighted 
at the sagacity of these animals ; for^ although 
there'were several beating about us on all 
sides^ whenever one of them stofqped^ the 
others followed his example, and became 
immoveable. I was told an anecdote of 
one of these pointers, which is very sur- 
prising. While in the act of jumping ov^ 
a wall, he perceived a hare on the opposite 
side ; when, by a great effort, he stopped 
himself on the wiJl^ and waited thece till 
his master came up doxd shot the hare. 


In England^ game is considered as 
private property ; and if any person Idll it 
on the land of another^ he is liable to a 
severe penalty. There is, however, an 
exception to this rule : When deer, foxes, 
or hares, are hunted by hounds, in that case 
the hunters pursue them over the country, 
sometimes to the distance of forty or fifty 
qules: and should the game even swim 
across a river, both dogs and horsemen 
follow. If the fox runs into a hole, ihey 
iknd in a small kind of d(^, called a terrier , 
i^o drives him out. The horses that are 
trained to this sport will leap over walls two 
yftrds high, and rivulets or ditches six yards 
wide, mthout moving an experienced rider 
from his seat. 

After having changed our clothes, and 
refreshed ourselves from the fatigues of the 
field, we sat down to dinner. Here our^ 


society was again erdivened by the presence 
of Mrs. Cox and some other ladies : and 
our host entertained us with some of his 
own-fed mutton, which was superior to any 
I had ever eaten, and a great vaiiiety of 
game, fruits, wines, &c. 

Early next morning we pursued our 
journey: we breakfasted at Chipping Norton, 
and dined at Stowe ; after which we pro- 
ceeded to Seisincot, the house of Mr. 
Cockerell. This estate had been purchased 
by the late Colonel Cockerell, who built 
thereon a new house, and, at his death, 
bequeathed the whole to his brother. We 
spent two days in this delightful spot,, and 
then proceeded to the residence of Mr. 
Hastings, the late worthy Governor-general 
of India. 

As I had promised Mr. Hastings, while 


in London^ that^ if ever I visited Oxford- 
shire^ I should pass a week with him, he 
therefore now claimed the fulfilment of my 
promise. I was much rejoiced to find this 
great man released from all the toils and 
anxieties of a public Ufe, amusing himself 
in rural occupations, and enjoying that 
happiness in his domestic society which is 
unattainable by the monarchs of the world. 

I was much pleased with viewing his 
grounds and gardens, which were laid out 
with great taste and judgment ; but I was 
particularly struck with the arrangement 
and economy of his farm-yard and daily. 
As the latter surpasses any thing of the 
kind I have seen, and is an office unknown 
in a gentleman's family in the East, I shall 
attempt a description of it. 

[ A dairy is a large room for preserving 


milk, butter, and cheese. "Hie one I now 
speak of^ was well shaded from l9ie 9un,Bnd 
had large glass endows on the fdm sides, 
which were opened or shut at pleasure. 
Within each window stood a frame of 
netted wire^ which admitted the air^ but 
obstructed the entrance of flies, or btiier 
insects. Around the room were placed a 
number of vessels, made of white maible, 
for holding the milk. There were also 
several marble slabs for pressing and shap- 
ing the cheese on ; and even the floon and 
seats were composed of the same delicate 
and costly material. 

As Mr. Hastings prefers Uving in the 
country to London, he has spared no 
expence in fitting up this residence ; in which 
elegance and utility are so happily blended^ 
that it resembles more the work of a Genii, 
than of human art. 

' During n^ stay at 4^is deHgfatfiil - ribette, 
Mr. Hastiings treated me^ with - the iitmoM 
attention • and Idhdness ; ahd^'when -I vmi 
about to d^rt^ he offered to supply me 
with money as long as I shoidd remain lii- 
England. I returned lum my acknow-^ 
le(%ments for his kindness ; but not being 
in want of assistance^ I dec&nedhis fnenidly 


Mr. Cockerell having some business which 
would require his stapng a fortnight at 
Seisincot^ wished me much to return thither^ 
and pass that time with him : but as^ pre- 
vious to my leaving London, Cupid had 
planted one of Ids arrows in my bosom, 
I found it impossible to resist the desire of 
returning to thepreseiwe of my fair one; 
and therefore, on leaving Mr. Hastii^'s, we 
separated. i. — . . 

VOL. I. h 

On my way to town^ J had an <^ipor- 
tunity of seeii^ Henley. It is advantage- 
ously situated on the river ^Thiimes^ and 
said to be one of the l^uidsomest towns in 
£ngland. I * did. not thinly: it superior^ 
however^ either to Richnumd or Kilkenny, . 

A few days alter my arrival in London^ 
I composed the following Ode, in imitation 
of Hafiz. 


Henceforward we will devote our lives to London, 
and its heart-alluring Damsels : 

Our hearts are satiated with viewing fields, 
gardens, rivers, and palaces. 

We have no longing for the Teba, Sudreb, or 

odi^ trees of Paradise : 
We are content to rast under the shade of these ' 

terrestrial Cypresses. 


If fee Shaikh of Mecca JidiiTliMf J lafgwi^ 

veT8i<Hi9 who cares } 
May the Temple vriMkhimtan kn admiAVkm^ 

ings on w^ and its Prmli^ flonkh ! 

Flu the goblet with wine ! If by this I am 

prevented from ret ur ning 
To my old religion^ I care not ; nay^ I am the 

better pleased. 

If the prime cf my life has been spent in die 

service cf an Indian Copid^ 
It matters not: I am now rewarded by the 

smiles ot the British Fair. 

Adorable creatiires ! vdiose flowing tresses^ 
whether of flaxen or of jetty hn^ 

Or auburn gay^ dd^^ my ionl^ and ravish all 
my senses ! 

Whose ruby lips would animate the torpid day^ 

or marUe statue ! 
Had I a renewal of l]fe> I would^ with rqiture^ 

devote it to your servieet 


Theie wounds of Cupid^ <m your hearty Taldia^ 

are not accidental : 
Tbej were engendered by Natare> like the 

streaks on the leaf of a tulip. 

See Appendi;c (A). 

- 1 



f , 

Character of the Author^s friends in London, 
His mode of passing the time. He visiis 
Greenwich, and other places in the viciniig 
of the metropolis. Account of the Freemasons^ 
British Mtiseum. The Irish Oiant. Chimne^'^ 
Sweepers. Kin^s Library, Pictures. Hin- 

doostany Ladies. Panegyric on Mr. Swintony 

- * 
one of his piipilsi 

.nLpTBR I was again settled in the metro* 
polis^ I pud my respects to my friends^ and^ 
was again introduced into the best sodefies. 
I generally spent one evening every week^ 
at the house of Mr. Flowden. Tbia gen- 
tleman resided many years in Indian at the 
court of Lucknow ;' where his services were 

so much approved^ that he has^nce been> 



chosen one of the Directors of the Company. 
Mrs. Howden is a most charming lively 
woman^ and the delight of all her acquaint- 
ance: she is hlessed with a numerous 
&mily of beautiful children^ several of whom 
are pfowtk up^ and possess the amiable 
qualitiea of tifidr parents. As the whole 
fttmity are admirers of music^ their parties 
were always enlivened by dancing or sing- 
ing; and I had frequent oj^rtunities of 
meeting the first connoisseurs in that de- 
lightful science^ at thdr house. I also 
there had the pleasure of becoming ac^ 
quainted iK^th some of the most beautifal 
«id channing ladies I have ever met with 
m my trwds. Two of diese were Miss 
Hyde and Mra. Anstruther : thor singing 
and pkyifig weie^ in my ojuniony superior 
to ether Mn. BiUii^ton or Madieune Banti^ 
altlmigh the first of these actresses was 
esteemed the best simrer at the Tlieatr^, and 


thA latter the most admired at ihe Open 
house; notwithstandiiigtheperfoniieisoftha 
last-mentioned institution axe all natives of 
Italy^ a country wfaidi is considered hfi 
Europeans as the Treammf qfthe Science iff 
Munci and in fitcC die mdody of Italy i^ 
proaches nearer to tiie wlk tones of Hin- 
doostan than any other I haw ever beard* > 

f o« Sir T. and Lady Metcalfe I waa 

much obliged fcnr the many agreeable partiaa 

I met at their house. ' One summer even^ 

ing that I spent with them at thrir eountiy- 

residence near Windsor^ the compas^ drank 

tea imder the shade of alai^e tree : among 

the female visitors were two young beautifiil 

ladies^ a Miss Taylor^ and a MissHosea: 

the latter was the daug^iter of Yh. Hosea^ 

who was lost when retumii^ from India in 

the ship Grosvenor;, on the coast of Africa ; 


224 rmm. xtArmu ow 

sad «lie hong an OTpbui, Sir Theophihtf 
bad aflEiMded her an asjAmn in Ins house* 
Dmii^ an interval in die e on vctB ati ony 
hidy ftfelcalfe observed^ that trees <tf the 
qiedes under iriiidi weatere seated g!enera% 
extended their bandies to a great distance^ 
but were sddmn hi^ ;- that tins was an 
exception to .life general rul^ bong not 
only of a great drcumference, but also very 
tall. I iHunediately refdied^ it was by no 
means astonishing ; as had I the hooour of 
being so often the companion of Misfr Hosea. 
as. it had^ my head would proudly exalt itself 
still higher than the tree. Th^ all laughed 
heartily at this, speech, and a[qplauded my 
warmth in the cause of beauty. 

At the house of Sir T. Metcalfe I oitm 
had the pleasui^s of meeting Mis s As 

it . is impossible £01 simple prose to da 


justice to her angelic qualities^ I have 
attempted to describe them in the following* 

[The Translator acknowledges himself unable here 
to follow the Author.] 

Sometime before I quitted England^ thiisr 

Miss married an old man on account' 

of his wealth : on which event a number of 
the young ladies who were envious of tw/f 
attachment to her^ whenever they had an 
opportunity, ran to condole with me on my 
misfortune, saying, *^ Do you know that your 
Miss is married ?" and then attempted 

« a 

to make some sarcastic remark on the 

object of her choice. This I would not permit 

them to do : but answered them in such a 

manner as made them laugh, by saying, ^^ It 

^' is a long time sihce my attachment to her 

^^ ceased ; she ther^ore^ bding in despair; 

^^ has prudently taken to herself a husband/^ 

L 5 


To my fiiend Mrs. Ridcets I shall ever 
be grateful for her civilities. She is the 
granddaughter of Begum Johnson^ weU 
known in Calcutta. 

I had the good fortune to form an 
intimacy i^th Mr. Ferary^ an Italian gen- 
deman^ so well skilled in music^ that many 
of his compositions were introduced at tiie 
Opera. He was also well versed in iehess^ 
which gave me an opportunity of improving 
inyself in that game. He one evening took 
me to visit a coimtryman of his^ who played 
three gaiQes of chess at tiie same time^ 
without looking at any of the boards^ and 
beat all his adversaries. 

At the house of Sir J. Macpherson^ late 
Governor of Bengal^ I had frequent oppor- 
tunities of meeting the Princes ; who all 


behaved to me with the greatest conde- 
scension and kindness. 

Among the literary characters with 
whom I had the honour of being acquainted^ 
were Sir Frederic Eden^ Sir John Sindaar^ 
and Sir Joseph Banks. The first of these 
has written several treatises on dtffinent 
subjects. The second is well skilled in 
husbandry and agriculture^ and has tliere- 
fore been placed by the King at the bead 
of a Society for the encouragement of tliese 
useful arts. This gentleman paid me 
much attention^ and beqaendy took me 
with him ten or twen^ miles into the 
country to look at various oljects of cu- 
riosity. One evening, when we were 
returning from visiting Us son^ iiiio was at 
the school of Sunbury^ (vrith the inspection 
of which I was much delig^ited^) and were 

Sft8 THS l*BiAVBI.8 OF 

arrived at his door^ he ordered &e coachman 
to drive on to my house^ afid first put me 
down. I represented to him^ that although 
my house was still two imles further of^ as 
I was in the constant hahit of walldng the 
streets^ I should prefer going home on foot^ 
and. would not either trouble his servants 
to carry me so fat, or encroach upon lus 
time by carrying him so much out of hir, 
way. . He however refiised either to put me 
down or get out himself: and.when I pressed 
him to explain the motives of his conduct, 
he replied : . ^^ In this world we are all liable 
to acddents ; and. if it should by chance 
happen^ that you this night met mth.aajr^ 
'' misfortune, I should never forgive myself."> 
At ^die:- house of Sir John I frequently had 
the pleasure of meetiiig some of the most ' 
i^espectaUe characters, m Ei^land. He 
^ me- the honour of introducing me to 



Lord Sheffidd^ by whom I was most stimp- 
tuously entertained. 

The third is one of those persons who 
sailed romid the world with Captain Cook ; is 
esteemed the greatest I%ilosopher of the age ; * 
and is President of the Royal Society. From 
each of these gentlemen I received the most 
pointed marks of r^ard and esteem. 

At the house of the latter gentleman^ I 
became acquainted with some of the most* 
celebrated painters in England^ several of 
whom requested me to sit for my portrait. 
Thus^ during my residence in London^ no 
less than six pictures were taken of me, the 
greater number of which were said to be 
very good likenesses. The following are 
the names of the persons who did me this 
hotiour : Mr. Edridge^ also celebrated as 


an engraver, Mr. Devis, Mr. Jesit^ Mr. 
Drummond, Mr. Ridley, and Mr. Northeote. 
I thought Mr. Edridge's was the best like- 
ness ; but Mr. Northcote*s was esteemed 
the finest picture. The merits and cdsbnty 
of all these gentlemen are hi beyond my 
feeble panegyric ; but some of the portraits 
of the last appeared as if starting from the 
canvas. His picture of my lovely friend 
Miss Burrell afforded me the highest grati- 
fication ; and, with the recollection of the 
original, wiU ever remain deeply impressed 
on my memory. 

At Sir J.Banks's weekly meetings, to 
which I was first introduced by Colonel 

Symes, I had frequent opportunities of 
conversing with Mr. Wilkins. This gen- 
tleman resided many years in India ; and^ 
besides acquiring a knowledge of the Persian 
language, has the merit of being one of the 


first Englishmen who made any pn^ress in 
Sanscrit lore. He has even translated a 
poem^ called the Bhagvunt Geeta, from 
that abstruse language. 

In the same manner I became acqu»nted 
with Sir W. Ouseley. This gentleman^ 
bdng possessed of a great taste for Oriental 
literature^ has by uncommon perseverance 
acquired such a knowledge of Persian^ as to 
be able to translate freely from that lan- 
guage ; and has published one or two books 
to facilitate the study of it. He did me the 
honour of frequently calling on me ; and I 
received much pleasure from his acquain- 

Prom General Wilkinson, Dr. "Ned, 
and Sir John Talbot, I received the most 
marked attention, and many proofs of 


Anodier of my most particular friendisr 
was Lady Elford ; to do justice to whose 
merit Beureacceeds the powers of my feeble 
pen. She is distinguished by a dignified- 
deportment, ease and el^ance of manners^ 
aflalnlity and politeness of conversation. 
She-is also imbued with so much piety, and 
endued ^dth so great a share of sensibility, 
that she never heard of any instance of 
God*s mercy, the loss of any fiiend, or any 
aot of cruelty, but the tears flowed from 
her compassionate eyes : notwithstanding 
this softness of temper, she possesses a^ 
ready wit, great soundness of judgment, 
and an excellent taste for poetry. She 
made a large collection of my Odes * : and 
although the idiom of our languages is so 
very different, she readily understood my 
meaning, and was much pleased with my 

I : .. ■ • • • . • . 

"^ •See Appendix (B). , 


performances. One day she took me to see 
a new invention^ which was exposed'for view^ 
in her. ndghbourhaod ; it was the vepresen^ 
tatioii of things in coloured cork, and' 
in fidelity of representation &r esGceeded* 
many pictures I had seen^ whether delinei-^ 
ated by the pencil or worked with the 
MSeidle. While we were viewing the dif- 
ferent articles^ the owner of the exhibition* 
came up^ and presented Lady Elford with 
a firee-admission ticket: which surprising- 
me much/ I asked her to explain the* 
reason of his conduct : she informed me^* 
that it was customary at these exhibitions^ 
if any persons had been there frequently^ 
to present them mth a ticket of that kind, 
in order to induce them to continue 
their visits^ and to bring their friends. - 
Her Ladyship also did me the fitvour to 
take me with her to Randagh ; a particular^ 
description of which place I hare given in 


my P apical Tbwr ; also to see the bamcks 
of the worn-out soldiers at Chebea \ and to 
Sir Ashton Lever's Museum^ and various 
other places of amusement. Her husband^ 
Sir William EUbrd^ is a colonel in the army 
and a member of Pkurliament, and celebrated 
for his wisdom and int^rity. He also 
possesses an ample knowledge of the Arts 
and Sciences. May God Almighty preserve 
Lady EUford^ and her two angelic dau^iters^ 
Betsy and Jessy ! whose transcendant qua« 
lities I have attempted to describe in the 
following Ode. 

[Here the Translator has again to lament his want 

of poetical talents.] 

In shorty the delight I experienced in the 
society of Lady Kford and her amiahle 
daughters will never be obliterated from 
my memory. When I was i^bout to quit 
England, and went to take my leave» 


each of them gave me some curiosity^ 
aa a token of remembrance ; and made me 
promise to write to them- frequently. Her 
Ladyship was so oveipowered by her feelings^ 
that she could not bid me adieu. 

In London I had the haj^iness of again 
meeting my friend Mr. R. Johnson. We 
had been many years acquainted in Itidia ; 
and it was at lus suggestion that I printed 
in Calcutta an edition of the poet Hafiz. 
He was my banker during my residence in 
England ; and I had a general invitation to 
his table^ where I often had the honour of 
meeting some of the most respectable cha- 
racters in London. It was rather a curious 
circamstance^ that^ in tiie persons of my 
London bankers^ Mr. N. Middleton^ and 
Mr.R. Johnson^ I should meet the two 
gentlemen who were the representatives of 
the £ast-India Company at the Court of 


Lucknow during a very eventful period; 
and who originally marred my fortune^ hf 
forcing me to accept of an employment 
under that government. 

Mrs. Johnson is an amiable and accom- 
plished woman^ and frequently had musical 
parties in the evening. It was at her house 
that I first had the pleasure of hearing 
Lady Hamilton sing. Her ladyship hasy 
mthout doubty one of the finest voices in 
Europe, and possesses great skill in music. ' 

To Lady Burrell, and her amiable 
daughter^ I shall ever feel grateful for Hnm- 
hospitality and kindness ; and to the latest 
hour of my life I shall recollect with 
pleasure the many happy days I passed in^ 
their society. In my poetical work^- entitled 
ThQ Mesnevy^y I have dedicated three Odes 

* See Note to the iDtrodoctioo. 


to NCss Burrdl : these^ however^ but fidntly 
express my admiration of her wonderfiil 
perfections ; in her person are united the 
beauty and accomplishments of Europe^ 
with the grace and modesty of India. The 
^es of the heavens nev^ beheld .more 
lovdiness. nor did the inhabitants of Para- 
dise ever hear more delightful melody thaa 
issues from the harp when touched by her 
angefic fingers. 

But^ above all, my Mends^ I shall ever 
r^et my separation from Colonel Symes. 
He was a man of the strictest honour and 
integntyy and had passed several years in 
India. During the government of Sir John 
Shore (now Lord Tdgnmouth) he was 
sent ambassador to Ava, ^nd conducted 
himself in that situation much to bis own 
credit, imd to the advantage of the. British 
nation. On his return from thence^ he 


wrote a book^ descrilHng all the euriointies 
of that country^ and the peculiar customs 
of its inhabitants; which was universal^ 
read and admired. From this gentleman 
I received many proofs of friendship ; and^ 
in fitct^ he behaved to me as if I had beoi 
his brother. When I had the honour ai 
bring introduced to his Majesty, he acted 
as my interpreter ; and he took me to see 
all the places in London where any infor- 
mation or knowledge could be acquired. 
He also introduced me to a number of his 
acquaintances, and frequently pressed me 
to accept of money for my expences. He 
agreed with me, tliat we should return to 
India together, and share in each other's 
fortunes. He literally performed his pro- 
mise ; but just as I was about to take my 
passage on board die ship he had engaged, 
Lord Pelham, one of his Majesty's Minis- 
ters, prevailed upon tne to forego my 


intention^ and we took leave of each other 
with tears in our eyes\ 

The principal person to whom I was 
introduced by Ciolonet Symes was Lord 
Carfaampton. He is a noU^nab of hig^ 
digntly^ and was the deputy of Lord Comr 
wallis during the period he was Lord-lieu- 
taumt of Ireland : he did me the honour 
of inviting me twice to his house^ and 
entertained me in a very superb style. 

To the introduction of Colonel Symes 
I WM also indebted for my acquaintance 
with Sir James Earle. He is one of 
the King's Physicians^ and of a most 
amiable and liberal dispontion. He fre- 
quently took me with lum ten or twelve 
miles from London^ to see various gardens^ 

* See Apfbkdix (C). 


and other places of ciiriodtly. - He often 
asked me to dine with him : and I ^d 
numerous invitations from Lady Earle to 
her routs and evening parties; where I 
m^et a number of beautiful young ladies^ 
and ■ heard exquisite music and singing. 
The most accomplished of ^ese.Hauries 
of Paradise was Miss Marian. Her beait^ 
transcends all praise; and from the first 
moment I saw.her^ her unage has never 
been efiaced from my mind. 

At iSr James Earle's I had the pleasure 
of forming an acquaintance with Lady 
Charlotte^ the sister of Lord Carbuiy ^ who 
frequently invited me to her routs, where 
I. met some of the first comipany in 

By the means before mentioned^ I was 
introduced to Mr. Nepean^ Secretary to the 


Admiralty: he is a sensible well-informed 
man; and during the summer gave me 
several invitations to his country-house^ in 
the village of Fulham ; and in the winter 
I attended Lady Nepean's routs in London. 

From Sir John and Colonel Murray^ 
both of vtiiom had held high official situ- 
ations in Bengal^ I experienced much 
Idndness; but as their place of residience 
was Scotland^ and &ey only came occa- 
sionally to London, I did not see so much 
of them as I wished. 

It would be the height of ingratitude 
to omit the name of Mr. Debrett from the 
list of my friends ; for although a book- 
seller^ he is a person of elevated sentiments 
and noble mind : his house used to be the 
rendezvous of all the members of Parlia- 
ment who opposed Mr.Htt. His wife is 

TOL. I. M 


also a person of a very good family, and 
of a very hospitable disposition. From my 
first arrival in London till the day I IdRt 
it, I experienced from this worthy couple 
much attention, and many acts of friendship. 

I had also the pleasure of being ac- 
quanted wth Mr. Sewell, another book- 
seller, who has a very large shop in ffie 
city. He was very anxious to promote the 
study of Persian in England; and invited 
me frequently to his house. He took me 
into the country, to see Colonel Alexander 
Robert's Observatory and Green-houses; 
both of which are well worfli visiting, and 
proved that the proprietor's philosophy and 
knowledge comprehended the objects of 
the heavens and the productions of the 

From Mr. Rousseau, a celebrated printer, 


I ^eceiv^ nuflaberles^ mar^ ,^^ i^^^'t 
tiQH } and in the preface tq Xfi^y qf l^i? 
books' he inserted my , i[utme J)y , way 9f 

Lady Winifred Constabl^^ a venerable 
Scotch lady^ but who$e mind still retained 
a)l the vigour of youth^ and who every 
weeky during the winter^ invited all her 
acquaintance twice to her house^ did me 
the honour^ without any introduction^ of 
sendmg me a card for her rout ; and I was 
so much taken wifh her afiability and ele- 
gance of manners^ that I became her con- 
stant visitor : I also received much delight 
from^ the agreeable society that frequented 
her house. This good lady's principal resi- 
dence was in Edinburgh^ the chief city of 
Scotland; and when she was about to 
depart for that place^ she told me it would 

be a great pity if I. should return to Indifi 

M 2 


without having seen Seotlrad : she there- 
fore urged me' to accompany and spend 
some lime "with her ; but being then in the 
same predicament as when I visited Oxford^ 
I wished to decline her kind invitation : she 
however would accept of no excuse ; and 
on the day she was setting off^ stopped her 
coach at my door^ and pressed me to go 
along with her. I was qtiite overcome by 
this uncommon act of kindness and atien-f 
tion^ and promised^' naj^swore^ that I would 
certainly follow her in two months^ and put 
up at her house. tVith'Ms declaration dut 


was at length satisfied';, and bade me &t^ 
well. At the end of the prescribed period^ 
I made preparations for my journey, and 
was about setting out, when I received the 
melancholy tidings of her death. '-■ I was 
sincerely affected by this intelligence, as 
she was an exceUerit woman, and the most 
Ibenevolent and obliging person of her 

MIRZA A9y TALEi; BmAN. 246 

nation that I ev;er met mth: for be i^ 
known^ that q£ njiy jSif ropeap friends^ many 
more of thena ^ere., Scotch than English; 
mme particularly Mr. p. Johnstone^ who 
had resided long ^ at LficknpWj^ and wit^ 
whom I had been, jiatimate; for twelve years ^ 
and Dr. :Blwe^; w}iQ was^ formerly at 
jGormckpore with Colonel , Hannay^ an4 
wfaom.I/had kpown for thirty years : frp^i 
both .of jljhese /.i^tlanep I ^naturally e3(- 
peeted mndhi c^if|lity|^.and, an iijyitati.o^. 1^ 
pass som^ time with th^m in ^ Scotland j 
hA they tot^ljy qieglfpled thq right jpf friend^ 
sbip wd l^ospiljality, whUe t^ aQii^e }%, 
to whom I was a : per£^t < straq^^ oi$6»:ed 
me the means of visiting a very interesting 
and di/^tant^ part of the langdom. , i; ,.. 

t • 


To Colonel Brathwaite,^,and his fih^vfj^j 
ing wife^ I wa,s under many pbligat^QiN^ 
for their hospitality^ ai^ she^))^ ^ PWJ 

M 3 

tt6 rtif •fkArftts OF 

df the public places in London^ particalarly 
ihe Tower and the Bntish Museum. The 
ColonJ^f had served long in India^ and was 
ihuch ffleas^ with the society of Natives 
of thM Country. 1 consider the Colonel as 
orf6 of ttie rhbst fortunate men in this 
World ; fo^ although a single glance from 
ISs wife is wortJi jf 100,000, he received a 
UKahia^ portion tvith her of tea lacks 
of niiiiK6^, upon the eaiy condition of 
laldng her liam^, sIm having been the 
daughter of General Brathwaite, comihander 
In diief of Madras. Sudi was her affection 
for hcff tltli^band^ that she always wore his 
picfore sUs^nded round her neck. 

In the boufee of Mrs. Gordon^ and the 
society of her charming &mily, which con- 
sisted df her iMhiabte-ifekbghter^ her grandson 
Hfbo istudied Pei^iaii under me^ ahd 
Bet nejpheW Curtain Losaick^ an ofi^r in 


the Royal Navy, who had highly distin- 
guished himself during the war by attacking 
and bringing ^w^y a French ship which 
was under thp protection of a heavy battery, 
I spent many delightful evenings : the 
amusements of which were sometimes varied 
by the pleasure of plajdng at chess with 

■ < 

General Money ; and of seeing and hearing 
the beautiful Miss Latour^ whose praises 
feu" exceed my powers of description, and 
is one of those belles who has l^ft a scar 
on my heart. 

Mrs. Gordon did me the fetvour to in- 
troduce me to Mr. Hankey, Colonel Peach, 
and Mr. Macpherson ; from each of whom 
I experienced much attention. 

At the table of Earl Spenser I had the 
honour of being introduced to Lord Ma- 
cartney. This celebrated nobleman has 

M 4 


been employed by the Kii^ on the most 
difficult missions. He was for some years 
Ambassador in Russia ; where he is said^ by 

his manly figure and aocompCshments^ to 
have gained the affections of the Empress. 
He was sent many years afterwards to 
China^ where he acquitted himself much to 
the satisfaction of his Court. During iiie 
war with Hyder Aly, he was Governor of 
Madras ; and had the offer of succeeding to 
the government of Bengal^ but declined it. 
Although seventy years of age^ he had the 
appearance of a handsome man of forty-five. 
His lordship frequently did me the fieivour 
of callii^ on me ; and entertained nie several 
times in a very superb manner. 

I had also the honour of forming an 
acquaintance with Lord Hardwicke^ a no- 


bleman of very ancient &mily^ and who 
succeeded Lord Cdmwallis as Governor of 


Ireland. As his Lor4ship was married to 
the sister of Lady Ann Barnet, whom I had 
the pleasure of knowing at the Cape of 
Good Hope^ and by whom I was recom- 
ipended to his lordship^ he in consequencj^ 
called on me^ and invited me to spen4 

some time with him at his comitry-house, 


forty miles distant from London. As thi$ 
event occurred a short time before he went 
to . Ireland, he urged me to return thither^ 
to pass a month or. two with him ; but: I 
had so many engagements on my hands^ 
that I was obliged to decline the honour. ' 

. I 

At the house of Lord Hardmcke I had 
the pleasure of meeting . Mrs. Montague^ 
the daughter-iurlaw of the lady whose 
superb mansion adjoins Portman Square*; 
and of whom I shall hereafter relate an 
extraordinary anecdote. His Lordship ako 
^d ii;ie th^ honi(«ur .(tf ilMod)|<4i% n^ 


Mr. Hape> one of the most edebrateA com*^ 
mercial men in Europe. Notwithstandii^ 
he Is said to have lost half his property by 
the French Revolution, he is still considered 
is the wealthiest merchant in London. Tlie 
Variety of wines, and the richness of tiie 
plate, at his banquets, exceeded any enter- 
tainment I have ever seen. 

I was nmch indebted to Sir Charles 
Rouse Boughton for many acts of kindness 
and friendship. This gentl^ttan had tfe^ 
sided many years in Fndia, %hd per(e€(fy 
imderstood the Persian language. The, first 
%Ae I met him was at Court ; ^cf*fe, by 
command of his Majesty, he bffieiatbd ^ 
inter(>reter, and stood between me and tiie 

'''<' I:li(^ "abb to ay>ki»y«»lE%;k iny tfb%t- 


Cqlonel Neville, an4 to Dr. Carshore, for 
their numberless civilities. 

"» ■ 
The Honourable Mr. Bruce, brother of 
Lord Elgin, did me the £avour to introduce 
me to his mother, who held the high and 
honourable office of Governess to the Prin- 
cess Charlotte of Wales (who, after her 
father, is likely to succeed to the throne of 
England, in preference to her uncles, such 
being the law of this country) . When Mr. 
Bruce was returning to India, he reserved 
to. proceed thither by the route of Constan- 
tinople, in order to visit his brother, who 
was then Ambassador at the Turkish Courti; 
and was very solicitous that I should ac- 
company him : but, as I was not then 
satiated with London, I declined his kind 

I oftenr viflited ^t^ the bouse of General 
i%9(rle8 Moiigan, in PortlaiMl ViiBuce. Thi& 


_ • • 

officer commanded the East-India Com- 
pany's army in the field at the period that 
Zeman Shah^ the Abdally^ threatened to 
invade their northern provinces ; and 'had 
acquired a large fortune in India in the 
most honourable manner. I was quite 
enraptured with his daughter, who has since 
married Mr. Lushington ; and have there- 
fore dedicated one of my Odes to her,. 

To Mr. Biddulph I was extremely obliged 
for his attention. He is one of the most 
extensive merdiants in London ; is a person 
of excellent manners, and sound sense : ^he 
frequently executes commissions . for the 
Prince of Wales: and it was hyhiB int? 
troduction that I viewed Carlton Houses 
the apartments of the Princess Gharioite, 
and many other places in London. , . •> 

From Dr. Macdoiiald^ tJie scw^-of my 
old friend Cotoivel m«i<(»«U: <tf : hia^ 


.recmed the most imBkrJ tmBHj and 
friendsbip, and had a general infitatioii to 
dine widi liiin whenever I was dbengpiged* 

' Colond Mackengje, who had kmgreaded 
ki India, and who spoke Persian with great 
fliiencjr^ often called upon roe; frequently 
eiitertidned me at his house; and kept up a 
constant intercourse mth me till I quitted 


Mr. Christie the Auctioneer also paid 
me much attention, and gratified me highly^ 
by shewing me the articles he had for sale. 
He once exhibited to me a number of 
pictures which he valued at ^iPdOfiOO ; and 
~^en I called there a few days afterwan^ 
they were all disposed of. 

'At the house of Ck)utiSdlor IkM^ 1 
had the pleasure of seang a Itatgt (CoHectioii 

!Z54 THE TRA,y 1BSJ& OF 

^ Persi&n ahd^Hindoostany pictves, and 
other rarities of the East: some of , which I 
diought superior to the pakitin^tof Europe* 

I had the pleasure of being acquainted 
with. Mr. Hartman, who lived in. a very 
magnificent style in Pbrtman Square. At 
his parties I met a nnix^ber of Frenchmen : 
among these was the gen^iexpan at whose 
house Napoleon Buonaparte was educated ; 
but the Emperor, so far from being grateful 
to him for the favours conferred, compelled 
him to flee, and take refuge in England from 
his tyranny. At the same place I was also 
introduced to the father-in-law of Greneral 
De Boigne, who acquired so lar^ a fortune 
in the service of the Mahr^itta chi^. Mahda- 
jee Scindia : this gentleman had been one 
of the courtiers of the murdered King of 
France^ and was of course obliged to, ^ban- 
don hp fcpuntry. , ^ . , , , 


;< Mr. Sti«uii^^np^bQlubi* held ^itt imperial 
situation at Madrasyiused frequently to call 
on me^ and invite me to his hou&e. •) H^ 
spoke . Persian fluentfy^ with the modem 
pronunciation of Iran (Persia), the style oT 
ivhich is well hnaum ^ (i. e. grammaticaUjr 

Sir Robert Chambers, who had been for 
many years Chief Justicfe in Beii^, fre- 
quently invited me to his houSe;- but as hife 
was then preparing for his journey to-^oN- 
nity, oiir intimacy was never matured. 

To Mr. Ducarrol, Cotenel Osborne^- and 
Mr. Huddleiston, all of wHotti ' had resided 
in India, I was under tiiiittf obligations;- - 

' • ' • ; ' 

3 / 

Mr. Wedgewood, whose compositiore 
and inventions in the manttfe^^tiAre of Chiifia^ 
ware are cdebrat6i thrbughbift ^the •#of kl^ 

> . ■ I . 

256 -' THB ^HAVBLS Ot 

paid me much attention^ and it om piabod 
#as very amdous to accompany me by the 
route. of Persia to India; but afitenvaids 
meeting with a traveller who. had returned 
from India that way^ and who described the 
journey as very perilous^ he was alarmed, 
and abandoned his design. 

,' •-.(.■ J'. *4 

Mr. Hagar a celel^ted painter j Mr. 
Poole^ and Mr. Hamilton, tv^ &n^ou&i;QU- 
sicians^ and Mr. Rotton^ a puoprietor ^oi one 
b{ the Theatres^ shewed me much dvility 
in the line of their different, professions. . 

Lord Teignmouth^ Mr. Ives along time 
the East-India Company's representative at 
Lucknow, Ciolonel , Mark Wood^ an^ 
Major Marsac^ were all very polite^ but did 
Kiot manifest any warmth, of ^friencMiip; 
. which^ as they had been all many years v^ 
, biditb Ji yvas. rati[ier disappoint^ at. 3^.. . 


Many oilier noblemen and gendemen 
pdd me much attention: but as a recital of 
their names would be the cause of prolixity, 
I shall here close the account. 

Notwithstanding the constant round of 
my engagements in London^ I passed a 
considerable portion of my time in writing 
poetry y and in seeing every thing or place 
that was curious^ either in the metropolis 
or its vidni^. I went one day, with a party 
of friends, to see Greenwich, once the resi* 
dence of the Sovereign, but now an Hospital 
for InvaUd Seamen, of whom there were 
1 500 present, when I inspected it* It is s 
noble institution, and worthy of imitation* 
Here is also a very celebrated Obiervatory, 
fiimished urith the largest and finest in* 
struments procurable; and it is from 
thiis spot that the Engfish calculate thar 


By the kindness of Mr. Sewell, I was 
invited to spend the day at the house of 

Dr. , situated eight miles from London. 

Tliis gentleman was celebrated for his know- 
ledge of chymistry, and his invention of 
several curious and useful machines. He 
exhibited before me many specimens of his 
art, which appeared to be the eflfect of magic. 
He dissolved gold and silver, and even a 
ruby, by a few drops of aqua-fortis. He 
made fire to pass through water. He 
changed water into air, and air into water. 
He separated the bodies of several sub- 
stances, and again united them ; with many 
other things too tedious to relate, but 
which afforded me the greatest amusement. 

At the distance of miles from Lon- 
don there is a beautiful garden solely appro- 
priated to the use of the Freemasons. Many 
wonderful stories are told of this sect. They 



have several regulations peculiar to them- 
selves, and are able to know each other, at 
first sight, by some sign, which cannot be 
perceived by any other person. Even the 
fear of death will not make them betray th* 
iNserets of their order. It is reported that 
the King, having some suspicions of them, 
oiTifered the Heir Apparent to become a 
Freemason, and to inform him if there was 
atiy thing in thdr tenets prejudicial to good 
government, or dangerous to the State. 
The Prince, in obedience to the Royal 
orders, was initiated into all the mysteries 
of the siect; and declared to his father that 
(heir })rinciples were favourable to his go« 
temmenl, and that they were among tlie 
most loyal of his subjects. ThxA iar the 
Prince disclosed; but nothing respecting 
their mysteries ever issued from his lips. 

The only informatiaa I MMU dbtaiii on 


this subject was, that when King Solomon 
made his preparations for bmlding the 
Temple of Jerusalem, he collected maspm 
and workmen from all parts of the worid, 
especially from Europe; and that .thest 
people, when assembled tog^eir^ bdbog 
desirous of commemorating the circiHnr 
stance, and proud of their professiop, 
invented certain mysteries, which should 
only be communicated tO; -persons of jOatog 
own craft. 

' ir 

Many of the^r custoins are very 
worthy. They do pot int^ri^ce. mdth ai\]f 
inan^s religion, por attempt to idter .his fidt^ 
lliey aric liberal to ;the poor.; . and ^way» 
relieve eachfthe^ when in dif tress>.. yariam^ 
and strife are banished from among themj 
and Jliey . cpijisider each, other BSiJB9:oikerjS. . { 

.)??»iwl!^SW^i:4^n OAei.eijwiig when 


llie Prince of Wales attended the Lodge. 
The garden was elegantly iUuminated ; and 
there was a great concourse of people of 
both 'sexes'. Supper v^as served upon tables 
placed under the trees ; each of which held 
about twenty persons^ and was superin- 
tended by one of the superior Freemasons. 
Man7 of the guests were of the lower order 
off the people ; whose spirits^ bdng exhila- 
rated^ either by the gay scene before them, 
St by the wine they had drunk, talked in 

the most familiar but affectionate style of 
their Brother George. 

My appearance in the garden having 
attracted much attention, I received invi- 
tations from many of the tables to &vour 
them with my company ; and as they would 
not take any refusal, Iwas compelled to 
pay my respects to them in turn. I was 
therefore obliged to take a btiiiij[i^r df wine 


at each table ; and having been frequently 
challenged by some beautiful women to 
replenish my glass, I drank more wine that 
night than I had ever done at one time in 
the course of my life. 

During supper, there was a grand display 
of fire-works, and the Prince's band of 
music played several delightfid airs: in 
short, this entertainment realized the scenes 
described in the Fairy Tales, or the Arabian 
Nights' Entertainments. 

I was frequently urged by several of the 
Freemasons to become one of their 
brethren ; but as I was not perfectly con- 
vinced that their principles were conformable 
to my mode of thinking, I begged leave to 
decUne the honour. They however pre- 
vailed upon EfTendi Ismael, the Turkish 
ambassador^ and Effendi Yusuf,, his secre- 


tary, to embrace their tenets; and both 
these Mohammedans were initiated into all 
the mysteries of Freemasonry. 

In a former part of this work I have 

■ ■ ^ 

said that the English are fond of making 
lai^ collections of every thing that is rare 
or curious. ' The place where these articles 
are dieposited is called a Museum. The 
rtiost celebrated of these, in London, is the 
British Museum ; it being a National in- 
stitution, that is, the whole expence is paid 
by Government. This building contains 
nearly 100 apartments, each of which is 
named from the articles it contains. It 
would be a vain attempt to enumerate the 
curiosities which are here preserved. All 
Nature has been ransacked to prociu'e them. 
I was however particularly attracted by the 
sighl of two horns, as long as thos6 6f a 
deer of two years old, which were extirpated 


from the forehead of a woman after her 
death. A' picture of the woman is also 
preserved with the homs« 

This Museum is situated nearly on the 
limits of the city : and from its windows 
are to be seen^ at the distance of four miles^ 
the beautiful villages of Hampstead and 
Highgate^ both of which stand upon lofty 
lul}s^ bounding the horizon. Tlie inter- 
mediate space is filled by rich meadows 

and verdant fields. However attracting the 
objects in the inside, I could not refirun 
from turning my eyes to this^ deligfatful 


One of the objects which I «aw in 
London, that most astonished me, was a 
man called a Giant. He was born in 
Ireland. His height was seven cubits, the 
length of his foot one cubit^ the breadth of 


his hand two thirds of a cubit, and all 
his other limbs in proportion. My head 
scarcely reached to his waist ; and when 
he stood, he was obliged to stoop, lest he 
sftiould strike his head against the ceiling. 
This poor fellow led a miserable life, as he 
was never permitted to walk out, for fear 
he should frighten the women and children ; 
and was. compelled to shew himself to every 
person wiip would pay a shilling for ad- 


' My attention was one day attracted, as 
I passed through Portman Square, by 
seeing a great assemblage of boys clothed 
in sooty rags, who were singing and re- 
joidng. I asked the reason of their ap- 
parent hi^piness, and was informed, that 
Mrs. Montague had for several years lost 
one of her sons; that at length he was 
brought back to her by some chimney* 

VOL. I. N 

a6& THB xjulvpm of 

meepea ; aiid^ in gratitude for l|is restora* 
turn, she every year, gave all the childrt^ 
of that description in London a ^rand 
entertainjnent, and they were .then ce- 
lebrating ^ the annivtosary of .;the joyfid 


I was much gratified by an . inapeciion 
of the King's private Library. It contains 
a vast number of books in all the European 
languages^ bound in a very elegant manner. 
It also contains some choice Persian and 
Arabic Manuscripts. I saw there a. copy 
of .the Shah Jehdn Ndmehy or. History of 
the Emperor Sh aq Jehaf of Hindo^nstan ; 
in which were inserted the Ei|iperor's por- 
trait^ and those of his most celebrated 
courtiers. After the jdunder of D^ly, 
this book, had been purchased by the Nabob 
Asuf ad Dowleh, and was highly prized hj 
him. He gave it^ as a mark of hi^ special 


&Tour^ to Sir J; Shore; kfee'^Govem^r ^ 
Bengal^ who pieseitted it to -hb'Ms^l^. 


In the house of Mr.Dflmid, Ifiaw.ditt 
poitraits of many bf my Indian a^itmf^' 
tahce^ and some beantifial paintings of 1^ 
T^e Mahal {Tomb of Momtam Zaiwi) 
therHnqnesa of Shah Jehan, Kii^ if the 
World)tat Agra^ and of several otitisr places 
in 'Hiadoostan^ most acouratdy delineated. 
As dnanyof the £nglidh.had an opiiaM 
that thare were not any buildings ^aiorilh 
V)okiiQg at' in India^ I was mmch regoiced that 
Mr^ifianiel had, by his ddtt^ enaUed me 
to "^oimnce them of ithe contrary ; aoidfl 
iiGiisted upon several of my fioiends accony* 
panyii^ me to his house^ to look at thete 
pictures^ which they ccrald : not bdboM witb^ 
out admiration. 

During my lendenee in -London, I bad 




the good fortune to form aii acquaintanoe 
with, two or three Hindoostany. ladies; who, 
from the affection they bore to their cluld- 
ren, had accompanied them to Europe. 
The most distinguished of these was Mrs. 
DucarroL It is generally rq>orted that she 
was a young Hindoo widow of rank, whom 
Mr. Ducarrol rescued from the funeral pile 
of her former husband^ and, having. con- 
verted her to Christianity, married her. 
She is very &ir, and so accomplished' in 
all the English manners and language; that 
I was some time in her company before 4 
oould be convinced she was a natives of 
India. This lady introduced me to two 
or three of her chUdren, from sixteen to 
nineteen years of age, who had every ap- 
pearance of Europeans. 

I visited Noor Begum, who accom- 
panied General De Boigne from India. 


She was dressed in the English fEushion^ 
and looked, remarkably well. She was 
much pleased by my visits and requested 
me to take charge of a letter for her mo- 
ther^ who resides at Lucknow. 

When General De Boigne thought 
proper to marry a young French woman^ 
he made a settlement on the Begum, • and 
gave her the house. in which she resides* 
She has two children^ a boy and a girl^ of 
fifteen and sixteen years of age^ who^ at 
the time of my visits were at school^ but 
always spend their holidays with her. 

I have before mentioned^ that one. of 

the objects I had in view^ in coming to. 

Europe^ was to instruct young Ekiglishmen 

in the Persian language. I however met 

mth so little encouragement from the 

persons in authority^ and had so many 



Other engagements to amuse me^ that I 
entirely relinquished the plan. I could 
not^ however^ refuse the recommendations 
that were brought to me by an amiable 
young man, Mr. Swinton ; and I agreed^ 
that, if he would attend me at eight o'clock 
in the morning, 1 would instruet him. ' As 
he was fiill of ardour, and delighted with 
the sul^ect, he frequently forsook his break- 
&8t. to come to my house in time. Thanks 
be to God, that my efforts were ctowned 
with success ! and that he, having escaped 
the instructions of self-taught mastefs^ has 
acquired such a knowledge of the principles 
of that language, and so correct an idea 
of its idiom and pronunciation, that I have 
no doubt, after a few years' residence in 
India, he wiB attain to such a d^ree of 
excellence as* has not yet been acquired by 
any other Englishman ! 




General description ofEnghmd. SoiL AnimiU. 
DmsitmofLcmd-^stateofcidthfaiion. Roddn 
Description of London-^ Squttri^ '^Chfisai- 
houses and ToverrU — €lidw'^JJ{0my-^iid 
other Societies — Opera, and Iflajf'-hoaseS'r: 
Orrery — Masquerades-^Rout^^PvhUc Build* 
ings — Charities — Bank qf England — Ro^al 
Exchange — Bridges^^Canals. 

-Having, I fear, tired my Readers, by 
being so long the hero of my own tale, I 
will for some time drop this subject, land 
endeavour to give a description of Londoii, 
and some remarks on England in geneiat * 
together with a short account of the custoffis 
and mannens of the pe<^le, the nattir6 of 
its goverhment, and its naval and miUtaiy 

N 4 


England^ according to the ideas of a 
native of Hindoostan^ may be said to be 
a mountainous country. Its soil is com^ 
posed of two kinds of clay mixed with stones^ 
and is equally adi^ted for the rearing of 
animals or for the cultivation of grsdn. 
The rainy season not being here of any 
continued duration, the eartii is never too 
much saturated. The roots of the v^etable 
Idngdom having, in consequence, a firm 
hold, extend themselves to a considerable 
distance, and are tiiereby enabled to support 
the lofty stems and spreading branches of 
tiie numerous trees which adorn tiiis happy 
land, or to yield an abundance of delicious 
fruits to its inhabitants. I have seen a 
i^gle vine, which grew in a small court- 
yard paved with flat stones, cover the 
whole side of a house, and produce suf- 
ficient grapes for all the &mily during the 
season ; some of its bunches weighing six 


pounds. Here also is to be found eveiy 
species of flower^ that grows either in Persia 
or India. There must certainly be something' 
very peculiar in the climate and soil of 
England, which causes it not. onty to yield 
such, a variety of the productions of the 
earthy but. idso such a difference in the: 
tempers and manners of its inhabitants,, 
that, no two of them appear to think or 
act alike. 

The domestic animals of England are 
all excellent in their kind^; especially the 
horses, dogs, and cattle. The latter are 
mudhi larger than those of India ; and the 
cows give a much greater abundance of 
milk, which yields delicious buttjer and 
cheese : their flesh also is admirable. 

. The English have particular horses for 
every kind of work. Those for drau^tj 

N 5 

Mb iD -vmryilfti^ iuid> pbwerfiil, asi toi Im 
nnSAtciAM ieuriority hii adier ooimtrieflr^ 
l%e3f) '«e iMied «ldy far hnv^ carrii^esy 
bv lor^. jfloo^ifaig the Jtnd; it not beings 
eusionHrir to use bollocks for tlmt forpote^ 
as with us. One 4)fthdse horses. will car^. 
an-great a load as a oamel^ abd iffill wtvk 
dsjfaiid night.' ^e ^saddle^^hdrses are not 
handsome^ biit< vety usefol ; and so quiety 
that one man may lead ten of them at once 
with a halter^ and they will follow him 
over wall or cBtch without any trouble or 
difficulty. All ^e land in England is 
divided into fields and parks^ which are 
inclosed either with hedges or waHsi Many 
of the paiks' contain cotm^fj^-Acn^fe^ .* these 
aire the rural habitations of the nobility 
or people of fortutHe^ tnA compfdhendy 

besides the house and offices^ gardens^ 

' * . • . ■ 

direhards^ fish-ponds, and pastare-^grounds 
for both sheep and, deer. Many of diese 

MIRKA Ailt 'TAtEB kHAK. 27^1 

•• * ■ ■ 

estates have also Hvers running throtig^ 
them, and extensive wobds of valuable 
timber. Some of the proprietbrb of thede 
houses reside in them the Tiiiole year ; or, 
when they have businesiS in London, hire 
a ready-furnished habitation for the time: 
but the people of wealth seldom remiun 
in them above five or six months. Like thie 
Arab tribes, they forsake the cities during the 
summer season, and seek, in the fresh aiid 
wholesome air of the country, a supply of 
health and vigour for the ensuing winter. 

Every part of this country appears highly ' 
cultivated: though, to judge from the few 
people whom I saw in the fields, or met 
on the road, I should tlunk the population 
very scanty ; and I was frequently asto- 
nished how the agriculture was carried on. 

The roads throughout England are very 


good ; they are wide^ and formed of stone 
or gravel ; and wherever they are intersected 
.by ravines or rivers^ good, and substantial 
bridges are erected ; by which means tra- 
velling in this country is not attended 
with any difficulty ; and^ at the distance of 
every six or seven miles^ there are inns^ 
which afford all things requisite either for 
rest or recreation. The villages resemble 
those of Ind^ as^ although the houses 
are generally buUt of brick or stone^ and 
have chimneys^ the roofs are low and 

London is the capital of the Empire^ and 
is the largest city I have ever seen: it 
consists of three towns joined together^ 
and is twenty-four miles in circumference : 
but its hamlets^ which to a foreigner appear 
a continuation of the city^ extend several 
miles in every direction ; and new streets 


are each year added to the town^ the houses 
of which are frequently bought or rented 
before they are finished^ and in the course 
of twelve months are completely inhabited. 
Thus during my residence there^ ten new 
streets were added to the town. The houses 
in London are generally built of brick, 
though a few of them are of hewn stone : 
they are conmionly four stories high, and 
have regular rows of glazed windows in 
front. A few of the noblemen*s houses 
have courts or porticoes before the door^ 
which add to their grandeur. The roofs 
are sloped like a tent^ and are covered 
either with tiles^ or thin stones called ilaU^. 
The interior is divided and fiimished like 
those already described in Dublin; and 
the streets and shops are also lighted at 
nighty in the same manner. The shops 
are in regular rows; and are very rich, 
extenttLve, and beautiful, beyond any thing 


I can describe. TKe -gfreateM ornament 
London can boast^ is its numerons squares i 
many of which are very extensive^ ^ and on^ 
inhabited by people of large fortune; Each 
square contains a kind of garden in its 
center^ surrounded with iron rails^ to wlnc% 
every proprietor of a house in the square 


has a key, and where the wom^i and 
c^klren can walk, at . all hours, without 


being Uable to molestation or insult. * 

In this city the coffee-houses are not 
so numerous as in Fkiris : here is scarcdy 
a street, however, . in which there is not 
either an inn, hotel, or co£fee-house, to 
be found : many of these have a magnifieent 
ai^pearanoe^ and are on so extensive a scale, 
tiiat in the Limidon Tavern they can prepare 
a dinner for five hundred persons -of rank^ 
s^ a few hours' notice. T frequently dined 
at this tavern, with the Indian Club^ l>y 


inYitation ; atid altiiough fieverd otlier large 
parties were asstoibkd there dt the same 
titiie,' we were not sensible^ eitiher from 
a want of attendance^ or from any noise 
or cbnfiunon^ that any other persons were 
in the house. 

Of the many admirable institutions of 
the English^ there was none that pleased 
me more than their Clubs. Hiese^ . S^^oe* 
rally speakings are composed of a sode^ 
of persons of the same rank^ profession^ 
or mode of thinkings who meet at a tavern 
at stated times every months where they 
either ^e or sup together^ and confer 
with each other on the topics most inter* 
esting^ to them^ or discuss such matters 
of business as^ for want of room^ could 
not be easily done iii a private house. *' ' 

4 ■-■ •• • .• .... .i 

These societies frequently consist of one 


or two hundred members ; ; but, as seldom 
above thirty or forty assemble at one; time, 
they are easily accommodated. The absait 
members, pay a small fine^ which is carried 
to the account of the e3q>ences of the dinner^ 
and the remainder is psud by those present. 

^ Itiere are a great variety, of these dubs. 
Some are appropriated to gamblings , or 
chess; others are entirely composed of 
pidntersy. artists^ authors^ &c. &4;^ llie 
Indian Club consists of a numlier of gentle- 
men who have resided for, spme y^s in 
the E^Eist. At these clubs^ , no person but 
a member is admitted^ without a particular 
invitation; and^ in order to become a 
member^ every person must be ballotte^ 
for ; that is^ his name and general character 
are submitted to the society; and if any 
gentleman present objects to him^ he is 
immediately rejected. 


They have also societies of nearly a 
similar nature, which meet at the house 
of the president, where they are entertained 
with tea, coffee, sherbet, &c. Of tihis kind 
is the Royal Society, who meet every 
Sunday evening at the house of Sir J. 
Banks, where all new inventions are first 
examined ; and if any of them are found 
deficient, they are rectified, by the joint 
consultation of the members. All the great 
literary characters assemble here, and submit 
their works to the inspection of the society. 
Through the kindness of the President, I was 
frequently present at these nieetings, . and 
derived much mental satisfaction from them. 

I abo frequently attended the meetings 
of the Musical Society, at the house of 
Lady Charlotte -, where I was al- 
ways much delighted by the . harmonious 
voices and sldll of the perfonuers. 


In London there is an Opera, and 

several Hay-houses, open to every person 

who can pay for admission. As these difier 

but Utde from the Play-houses described 

in my account of Dublin, it is unnecessary 

to say more respecting them. There are 

also so many other places of public amuse- 
ment, that a stranger need never be at a 
loss to pass his time agreeably. 

A plulosopher named Walker latdly 
hired one of the old Play-houses, in wludi 
he exhibited, every night during the sum^ 
mer, an astronomical machine, called an 
Orrery y by which all the revolutions of 
the planets and heavenly bodies were per- 
fectly described. From the centre of a 
dome twenty yards in height was sus- 
pended a glass globe, in which a bright 
lamp was burning that representedthe Sun, 
and turned round, like the wheel of a mill, 


• _ 

on its astis; Next* to the Snn was sus- 
pended a small globe that represented 
Mttreuiy; a third representing Venus; a 
finurth^ the Earth; atid a -fifths the Moon: 
the 5ixth was Mars ; the seventh, Jupiter, 
attended by four satellites ; the eighth, 
Saturn, with five attending satdlites ; and 
th^ niMh, Geor^iim Sidus, a lately-di»^o- 
ver6d pkmet, with six attending satellites: 
All' these globes were put in motion l^ the 
turning of a \theel ; and exhibited, at one 
view^ all the revolutions of the Solar system, 
with' such perspicuity as must convince the 
most prejudiced person of the superiority^ 
nay, in&llibility, of the Copemicai> System. 
I was so much delighted by the novelty of 
this exlnbition, and the information I re^* 
c^ed from it, that I went to see it several 

The English have an extraordinary kind 


of amusement^ which they call a Masque- 
rode. In these assemblies^ which conmst 
of several hundred persons pf both sesces, 
every one wears a short y&X or mask, made 
of pasteboard^ over, the Cetce ; and each 
person dresses according to his .or her 
Cancy. Many represent Turks^ Persians^ 
Indians^ and foreigners of all nations ; but 
the greater number disguise thems^es as 
mechanics or artists^ and iipitateall their 
customs or peculiarities with great exact- 
ness. Being thus unknown to each other^ 
they speak with great freedom^ and exercise 
their mt and genius. 

At one of these entertainments^ where 
I was present^ a gentleman entered the 
room dressed in a handsome bed-gown, 
night-cap^ and slippers, and, addressing the 
company, said he paid several guineas a 
week for his lodgings above stairs; that 


tbcy had kept him awake all night by their 
noise; and that, notwithstanding it was 
near morning, they did not appear inclined 
to disperse ; they were, therefore, a parcel 
df rude^ impudent people, and he should 
lend for constables to seize them. I 
thought the man was serious, but my 
companions laughed, and applauded his 

Several of the ladies of quality permit 
thdr acquaintances to come to their houses 
in < masquerade dresses, previous to their 
going to the public room, where they 
exhibit dieir wit and skill at repartee. 

They have other public amusements, 
called Balls, which are confined to dancing 
and supper ; but there are so many private 
entertsdnments of this kind given, that 
the public ones are not well attended in 


I one day ieodvcd Bn'ttmkaion card 
from a lady^ on wfakh wlus wiitt«n/ miiy> 

•^ Mrs> at home oii ■■ > " ■ .wrenir^:^ 

At firsts I thought it meant an asagnation ; 
bat, on consultiv^ one of my firiends, I 
was informed that die lady gave a Bout that 
night ; and that a rout meant an assendnh^ 
of people without any particular object; 
that the mistress of the house had aeldom 
time to say more to any of her guests than 
to inquire after thrir health ; but that • the 
servants supplied them with tea^ coffee^ iee, 
kc. ; after which they had liberty to depart, 
and make room for tothens. I ftieqiiently 
afterwards attended these routs, to some 
of which three or four hundred persons 
came durii^ the course df the ii^ht. .. 

The puldi§ biNldijQ§^ i» Ixmdons iare 
innumeniUe,: and ^ )de$oriptmi ot Ubitm 
fdione woaid \&l a volume. They^ are 
generally built of stone, and many jw >viery 


mus^y and grand. . The principd of th^m 
voce, Westminster ^Abbey^ whidi contains 
the tpmh3 of all tiie Kings ; the Cathedrptl 
of St. Paul's ; the Foundling and Lying-in 
Hospitals ; and those of Greenwidi and. 
Ch^lsea^ for naval and oiilitaiy pensioners.. 
TheriQ are alao a number of Colk^pes^ such 
a^ I have de$cribeid at Oxford ; and several 
Schools^ which, contain four or five hundred 
boys each^ supported entirely by subsefip^ 
tion^ or by charitable donations. These 
schools may be considered as ^ little worlds 
in which ihe English are taught every thing 
usefiil^ honourable^ and virtuous. 

Eli^Ush charity, does not consist in 
giving a small sum of money to a.b^gar^ 
or a poor poet^ or a starving mnaieian* 
These persons they liave a' great aversion 
to ; and should one of them {(Mow^^ 4X)aeh 
for miles^ he would lose his labow^ and 

!&88 XHS TUAYEIA 09 

not be able to soften the hearts o£ those 
seated therein'. But' their charities are of 
a public nature ; for in every parish there 
b a house built for the poor^ where they 
may reade^ and recdve a daily aUotwance 
of food. If a Ceunily be reduced to poverty 
by any accident, they have only to make 
known their condition to the parish officers, 
who are obliged immediately to admit them 
to the established allowance. 

These poor-*houses are supported by- a 
tax paid by every housekeeper in the parish ; 
and the amount of their revenues has bem 
estimated at three crores of rupees, or 
.s^". 3,000,000, annually. Notwithstanding 
this immense esqienditure, I saw a number 
of beggars in London, but was told they 
were idle, worthless people, who preferred 
this mode of a life to a regular stipend. 
Sometimes the recdpts'of the Play-^uses 


^ 'Qptm, &'c. are 'dedica^d to diaritiu- 
}Ae' fUTfts^; and such iii the attention 
of Govertiment to thewelfiatre of the pooif^ 
ihat if: any individual tau devise a sri^eme 
kf wbidi th^ wiD be benefited^ the Mi- 
nisters lay it before Parliament^ and obtmn 
permission to appropriate hcs of rupees for 

In this dty there are several hund^^d 
bankers^ who have very extensive concerns 
all bv^r the world. There is^ however^ 
one house vastly preeminent over dll the 
others^ which is called the B€tnk of England} 
it is a veiy massy building, aiid contains 
iKsafly t^o hundred apartments; each of 
which is appropriated to a -particular office. 
The partners of this bank are numerous, 
htid i&onstitute k Company, siimlar to the 

Bttift-lndia Comj&mij^, the busineisiof which 

■" ■• _ 

is -mani^ed by a certain number of D5~ 

VOL, I. o 


rectors. In this bank is lodged all public 
money, and all the treasure of the nittion. 
it is said to eontain hot less tlian 
vjf. 100^000,000^ in specie 4and bollion. 
The profits of this Company must be 
Atnmeitse, as they seldom pay tmy demand 
in money ; and their notes^ which do not 
bear any interest, pass current, tus cash, 
all over the empire. 

Opposite the Bank is situated another 
public building, called the Exchange, where 
all the merchants of the ci^ assemble eveiy 
day, to make their bargains ; and where 
inteUigence is daily brought from every 
^art of the world, whether of a commercial 
or political nature. 

It has heen before mentioned, that the 
present capital is composed of three towns ; 
called, Westminster^ the City, and the 


Borough. The latter is situated on the 
south bank of the river^ and is united to 
the others by three handsome stone bridges^ 
each of which is from a quarter to half jsl 
mile long. Lower down the river^ at a 
place called Gravesend, they are con* 
structing a very extraordinary bridge, if 
such it can be called. It is an iron tunnel^ 
which is to extend Irom one side of the 
Thames * to the other, all the way under 
ground. It will^ consequently, be quite 
dark ; but, by the aid of lamps, horses 
and carriages are to pass at all hours, while 
ships of the greatest burthen are suling 
over their heads. This appears to me one 
of the boldest undertakings, and will be 
the most surprising work of art in £ng- 
land, if it succeed. 

* The Thames at this part is as wide as the Ganges. 

o 2 

2gfk THE TWLhyms q» , 

AU the foreign trade enters Loncbn 
by the Thames; but there are various 
canals^ commumcating wilii this riyer^ to 
ev^ part of tbe country, by which the 
internal commerce is carried on*. By 
m^ans of these canals^ all heavy articles 
are conveyed from one part of the kingdom- 
to another, at one tlnrd of the expence 
diey could be conviqred by hnd ; and, con^ 
seqnently, the proprietors are enaUed to 
sell Ih^n at a lowar price. 




Of the state of the Arts and Sctetues m JEngh 
land. ViiUtyqftheJrtofPrmtv^. HeU/s- 
papers. Facility of traveUing. Price if 
Provisions. Hot-hquses. Eoccellence of the 
British Navy. The Author gives an account 
of the War unth Denmark. He visits fPbol- * 
wich — Description of the Docks and Lvn^ 
Foundry. Account of the British Army. 
Grand Review at Windsor. Tower of London. 

v^F the inventions of EXirope^ the utility 

of which may not appear at first sight to im 

Asiatic^ the art of printing is the most 

admirable. By its aid, thousands of copies, 

of any scientific, moral, or religious book, 

^ may be circulated among the people in a 

very short lime ; and by it, the works of 



<^lebrated authors are handed down to 
posterity, free from the errors and unper- 
fections of a manuscript. To this art the 
English are indebted for the humble but 
useful publication of Newspapersy without 
wMch life woidd be irksome to fhem. 
These are read by all ranks of people, from 
the prince to the be^ar. They are printed 
daily, and sent every morning to the houses 
of the rich; but those who cannot afford to 


subscribe for one, go and read them at 
the coffee-rooms or public-houses* These 
papers ^ve an account of every thing that 
is transacting, either at home or abroad : 
they contain a minute description of all the 
battles that are fought, either by sea or by 
land; the debates in the Houses of Par- 
liament ; the state of the crops in the 
country ; the price of grain and all other 
articles ; the death or birth of any great 
.personage ; and even ^ve information, that, 


on suck a nighty such a play will be per^ 
fonned^ or such an actor will make hi» 

Soon after my arrival in London, an 
entertainment was given at Vauxhall for 
the b^iefit of some public charity. Previous 
to its taking place, the managers sent me a. 
polite message, requesting I would &vour 
them ndth my company ; but that, as my 
appearance would be attended with great 
benefit to the undertaking, they hoped I 
would excuse their not accepting any tlung 
for my admission. As I was ever ready to 
assist any public charity, I agreed to go ; 
and it was immediately inserted in the 
newspapers, that the Prince Abu Taleb 
would honour the gardens with his prci- 
sence on the appointed night. As Vaux- 
hall is situated on the opposite side of the 

river, and I had never been seen in that^ 

o 4 

20$. . .THK TBAV1SL8 QT 

pilirt of th6 town^ the crowd of peofdewho 
MaemUed in the evening was greater diM 
ever before known^ and it was witil mtrch 
difficulty I coiild pass through them. When- 
arer J went to Court, or paid my respec^ 
to/oiie of t2i^ Princes or ministers of itate, 
tbe iaiffcumstimce wi&s always reported by 
thenewi^pars of die following dfify. In 
all these ' advertisements, thegr did me the 
hoDoar of naming me ?%« Persitin Prinoe. 
Ldedar^ I^ iiever assniheid the tide; biK 
rwassomnch better known by it than by 
my own name, that 1 found it in vaSnto 
contend with my godSsithers*. 

* Mirxa means a' Pnnce^ but it should folk>w the 
name : prefixed^ it shews the person to be a de- 
scetidsnt of Mohammed. Some people have supposed, 
becaoae the author Was not a Prince, he was tm worthy 
of the attention paid him : this however is a mistake ; 
he was a Gentleman by births education^ and employ- 
ment^ and a KhSn (Lord) by creation. 


if am c6nvinced no country iki the world 
affords so much facility of tfttvelling as 
England. People of fortune, who travel in 
their own carriages, need never feel fatigue; 
but if a person is in a hurry, he has only to 
take a place in the Maii Coach^ and mi^ 
be conveyed ^ a thousand miles in seven or 
eight days, well secured from all the in- 
demencies of the weather, and sure of a 
good breakfest and dinner. These carriages 
pay a tax to Government, and are used by 
people of all ranks. Although these vehicles 
are ifi use in France, and all over Europe, 
there is no country where the same atten- 
tion is paid to the comfort and ease of the 
passeiigers as in England. I complained 
of the inconvenience I suffered in Ireland 
by the joltang of the carriage, and what I 
then thought the rudeness of the coachman; 
but lifter esq^eriencing the mode of tnr 

in France, I was convinced my 

o 5 


fonner cortiplaints were all groundless. 
This vidll be further explained in the sequel. 

Living is very expensive in England; 
and a good appetite is a serious evil to a 
poor man. Some idea of the rate of the 
expence may be formed by the prices of 
the common articles of food. Meat of all 
kinds sells, upon an average, for seven- 
pence halfpenny a pound; bread, four 
pounds for fifteen-pence ; and porter, five- 
pence a quart. Vegetables and fiiiit vary 
in their prices, according to the season of 
ihe year. 

One of the greatest luxuries the English 
enjoy is the produce of their hot-houses. 
In these buildings they raise vegetables 
and fruit in the coldest season of the year ; 
and the tables of the rich are covered with 
pine-apples, melons, and other fruits of the 


torrid zone. In this instance they excel 
us ; for none of the Emperors of Hindoofittan^ 
in all the plenitude of their power, could 
ever have forced a gooseberry pr a cherry, 
two of the most common fruits in Europe, 
to grow in their dominions^ 

[Here follows a minute description of a hot-bousej 
whibb is onaitted.] 

\ ,' Tlie great perfection to which the Eng-* 

'■'^ Itsh/have brought their navy is, doubtless, 

. the chief cause of their prosperity, and the 

principal source of all thdr wealth. By means 

of their navy, they can at all times send aa 

army to invade their enemy's country. If 

they succeed, it is well ; if not, they can 
return with little loss. Their neighbours^, 
the French, on the contrary, although they 
possess an innumerable army of bravQ 


tvoops^ cannot injure the Engli^^ who are' 
odnstantly well protected by their floating 
bMteries^ which suffer not a Frendiman to 
pass die sea. . 


The wisdom and skill manifested by the 
English^ in tlie construction and navigation 
of their vessels^ mth the excellent regula- 
tions for preserving the health and discipline 
of the crew, are beyond my powers to 
describe. The following instance of their 
ooolness and dexterity may give some iaint 
idea of their character. Lord Teignmouth 
inlormed me^ that when returning from 
India, and during a gale of wind off the 
€Sape of Good Hope^ the mainmast of the 
ship was struck by lightning, which instandy 
set fire to the sails and rig^ng ; and before 
tkey could extinguish the flames^ the voxi&t 


was bunied down nearly level with the deck : 
but/ by the. aedvily and dexterity of- the 


crew^ the fire was psfisrented from commu- 
nkkting With the other sails, or any other 
part of the ship. All this was done with 
so little noise and confusion, that neither 
he, nor any of his family, who were below 
deck, in the great cabin, (although it hap- 
pened in the day-time) knew any thing of 
tiie matter till several hours after, when^ 
the gale having abated, they went on deeky 
and observed the mast gone. 

During the late war, four of the kings 
of Europe, viz. the sovereigns of Russia, 
Prussia, Denmark, and Sweden, being irri- 
tated against the English for searching their 
ships, from a suspicion of their having 
Fraich goods on board, entered into a con- 
federacy to punish the English navy, if 
ihey persevered in this system. They also 
ordered all ^e merchant vessels of that 
nation in their, ports to be seized, and 


prohibited the exportation of an^ naval 
stores from their countries. When this 
intelligence was brought to Great Britain/ 
the generality of the people were much 
alarmed ; but the Government shewed no 
apprehensions, and sent Lord Nelson, with 
fifty ships of war, large and small, to cruize 
in the North Sea, on the coasts of these 
four kings ; and gave him orders to seize, 
bum, or sink, all the ships he should meet 
with belonging to those nations, and thus 
revenge the affront offered to the British flag. 

Lord Nelson having proceeded with his 
fleet up the North Sea, arrived at the narrow 
entrance of the Baltic Sea* Here his pas- 
sage was warmly opposed by two forts> one 
on the Denmark, the other on the Norway 
$hore^ assisted by several large ships moored 
close to the land. The English however 
forced the passage^ and cast anchor oppodte 


Copenhagen^ the es^ital of Denmark, when 
they commenced a dreadful fire, both on 
the town and on the ships in the harbour. 
The Danes were not deficient either in skill 
or bravery, and the contest was long doubt-^ 
fill. Many of the English ships were 
severely injured, and 6000 of their men 
killed ; when> at length, the Danes sued for 
peace, and acknowledged Great Britain to 
be sovereign of the ocean. All the English 
merchant ships were immediately restored ; 
and the Emperor of Russia dying very soon 
after, the other Idngs were glad to make 
peace, and comply with the terms of the 


Better is a living body, and laughing enemies^. 
Than a dead body, and crying friends ! 

In : shorty the British seamen look with 
much contempt upon the navy of all other 
nations^ and consider them to bt^ only M 

d04 THE TkJL\n&tA O^ 

for tenders^ or carriers of protision^ for 
tlieir own fleet. 

In the year 1801^ 'the number of ships 
of war belonging to the Royal navy was 
dght hundred and three, carrying from 
Sixteen to a hundred guns each ; and there 
was a sufiirient supply of timber and marine 
Stores in the kii^dom to build as many 
Aiore. Of the member of their merchant 
ships^ He only knows^ who knows all things; 
whether in heaven or on earth ! 

The Sfervice of die navy is estfeemed not 
only very honourable^ but often very lucra- 
tive ; for whatever ships of the enemy are 
taken, whdther by the fleet or by a single 
ship, they become the property of the 
eaplors. The only restriction is, that if 
the #h^ so taken, or its guHs, ate thought 
wostfay of his Majesty's service^ the king 


can take them for that purpose^ at a rea- 
sonable price. Thus the Victorietuc, in 
which I made the voyage ft^m Leghorn to 
Constantinople^ was a French vessel^ taken 
by the fleet under the command of Lord 
Duncan^ and was purchased from the 
captars for a large sum of money for his 
Majesty's service. 

In England^ there are several Royal 
dockyards^ for fitting out and repairing 
these ships ; but the two principal ones are 
Portsmouth and Woolwich. The former 
is also a celebrated sea-port^ or rendezvous 
of the fleets^ previous to their sailing on 
any expedition. As it is at a considerable 
distance from London^ I did not visit it ; 
but^ by the kindness of my friend Colonel 
Peiach, I had an opportunity of inspecting 
every part of Woolwich. I there saw 
several large ships on the stocks ; and such 


stores of timber, iron, canvas,, S(C. th^t had 
the war continued for ten years bngef^ they 
would not have required a fresh supply* 
I Was particularly attracted l^ the mode of 
casting the cannon-balls and shells; also 
by the manner of boring and shaping the 
toterior surface of the guns at the same 
time, all done by the motion of a wheel 
turned by a steam-engine, which so fa- 
cilitated the work, that an old woman or a 
child might have performed the rest of the 

In conclusion of this subject, I tliink I 
may venture to assert, that one half of the 
people of England are either ssdlors, or in 
some way connected with die navy. 

The British army consists of cavalry, 
in&ntry, and artillery, and is very numerous 
and well disciplined ; but, as it is dispersed 



in different parts of the empire^ it is seldom 
that more than twenty or twenty-five thou* 
sand can be seen at one time ; and this 
only happens when they are assembled to 
be reviewed either by the King or by the 

I had the good fortune to be present at 
one of these reviews, but found considerable 
difficulty in effecting it. All the troops 
in the vicinity of London, amounting to 
25,000, having been ordered to assemble 
near Windsor, to be reviewed by his Ma- 
jesty, Mr. Clive and I set out from London 
the day previous to the time appointed, and 
arrived at Windsor early the same evening ; 
but so many people had come on the same 
errand, that we could not get any accom- 
modation at the inns ; and although we 
offered six guineas for the use of two beds 
at any private house for the ni^t, we could 


not obtain them. We wandered, for some 
time> up and down the town, in the greatest 
distress ; but at length my friend recol- 
lecting that he had an acquaintance who 
kept a large school in the neighbourhood, 
we proceeded thither, and fortunately reached 
the house just as the &mily were going to 
supper. The worthy sdioolmaster received 
us most hospitably ; and having directed 
four of his boys to sleep in two beds, he 
gave us their vacant ones. 

Next morning, after breakfiftst, w^ pro* 
ceeded on horseback to the parade, where 
we found an immense multitude of spec- 
tators assembled. I can safely aver there 
were five thousand carriages, filled, both in 
the inside and on the tops, with handsome 
women, dressed in their best attire. During 
the whole of my residence in Europe, I 
never saw so muck beauty assembled as on 
that day. 


The troopft were drawn up in a circle^ 
into the middle of which the King, attended 
by the Prinees and general officers, rode. 
His Majesty was first welcomed by a dis- 
charge of cannon firom each brigade, afler 
which he was saluted by all the troops with 
their muskets. They then broke into co- 
lumns, and marched past the Duke of 
York in grand divisions. I was lucky 
enough to obtain a station near his Royal 
Highness, opposite to whom a select band 
of music, belonging to the third regiment 
of Guards, was drawn up, and played some 
of the most charming tunes and melodious 
pieces of music I ever heard. It was nearly 
four o'clock before all the troops had pass- 
ed the Commander-in-chief : we therefore 
hurried back to London as soon as the 
review was over, not wishing either to 
sleep on the road, or again to annoy our 
friends at the school. 


The Horse Races at Newmarket an- 
nually occasion a vast assemblage of people ; 
but as that diversion may be seen in Cal- 
cutta^ I pass it over. 

The object most worthy of visiting, in 
or near London, is, I think, the fort com- 
monly called the Tower. By the intro- 
duction of my friend Colonel Brathwkite, 
I was permitted to sec every part >of this 
fortress. Immediately on my entrance, 
I was conducted to the Royal Menagery, 
where I was shewn lions, tigers, panthers, 
and some other savage animals which had 
been <;hiefly brought from Africa, but of 
whose names I had never before heard. 
We then proceeded to the Jewel Office^ 
where they exhibited to us the crown, the 
mace, and all the coronation jewels, both 
of the King and 'Queen : amongst these 
were a ruby and an emerald, each .of which 


cost ten lacs of rupees {£. 125^000)^ and a 
number of valuable diamonds and other 
predous stones. During this exhibition 
we were locked up in the room, although 
all the articles were well secured by glass- 
cases and iron gratings. We afterwards 
went to the Armoury, in the yard of which 
were lying an innumerable quantity of 
cannon of all sizes: two of these were 
each twenty-five feet long. The room 
under the armoury was a quarter of a mile 
in length, and said to contain bridles, 
saddles, harness, and other equipments for 
60,000 cavalry and artillery horses. The 
armoury is seven hundred paces long : in 
it are disposed, in a very curious and beau- 
tiful manner, muskets, bayonets, halberds^ 
swords, and pistols, sufficient for an army 
of 120,000 men. At one end of the room 
is an apartment containing the statues of 
eighteen of the IGngs of England, on horse- 


back, with all the armour which they were 
accustomed to wear in their life-time ; and, 
in &ct, they looked as if still prepared for 
battle: each horse has also his j^room 
attending him. 

The armour which is here preserved is 
of a very ancient date, and is not composed 
of chains, like that of Hindoostan, but each 
limb has a complete piece of iron to cover 
it^ and the whole fits the body as exactly as 
a suit of clothes : tihiere is also a mask for 
the fi&ce, and iron gloves with joints at 
the knuckles, so that a person may even 
write in them. They assert that, formerly, 
the kings wore this armour the whole day, 
and never took it off but when they wished 
to sleep. 


R. WatU, Priiitier» Broxbourne.